БЕЛЯШИ ОТ ТЕТИ КЛАВЫ (настоящие татарские)
| 500 г молока|
0,25 пачки дрожжей
3-4 ст.л. растительного масла
1 ч.л. соли
1 ч.л. сахара
900 г муки
Согреваем молоко и растворяем в них 0.25 пачки дрожжей, добавляем яйцо, растительное масло, соль, сахар, муку. Сразу оговорюсь, вымешивать приходится долго. Ставим подходить в теплое место и когда тесто увеличится в 2 раза, начинаем лепить. Я сначала разделываю тесто на шарики размером с грецкий орех, далее делаем достаточно тонкие лепешки , кладем на них 1 ч.л. фарша и приминаем ее в лепешечку. Фарша много класть не надо т.к. он не прожаривается. Защипываем ватрушечки и швыряем их на разогретую сковороду защипами вниз!!!!!! Когда одна сторона поджарилась переворачиваем и смотрим - как только в беляшике аппетитно начинает булькать бульончик мы истекая слюной кладем его на тарелочку, мажем сметанкой и едим, не забывая жарить следующие.
Фарш: Я делаю из свинины и куры (татары естественно из говядины и баранины), добавляю лук, соль, перец и зеленюху. Мясо должно быть достаточно жирным, чтобы потом "булькать".
Friday, June 26, 2009
Thursday, June 25, 2009
Кай заманда, кайсы телдә булса да мәзкүр Казан,
Искә керми калмый һич тә шундагы бер күл — Кабан.
Бу шәһәрне һәм бу күлне җырлыйдыр милләт теле
Бик яратып, әллә инде иске шөһрәт аркылы.
Ул шәһәр — гади шәһәр, алтын-көмеш, гәүһәр түгел;
Күл дә тик бер күл генә, әлбәттә ул кәүсәр түгел.
Нечкәләп баксаң, бу күлнең бар бугай шигърияте,
Бар кеби милләт хыялында аның сиррияте.
Бервакытлар мин, сузып анда Кисекбашның җебен,
Бер төшеп мендем — бөтенләй тикшереп бактым төбен.
Чыкканым юк тик әле никтер бу күлнең артына,—
Әллә мин ялкауланаммы? Әллә күңелем тартына?
Тик сөйли күргән кеше анда гараиблар күбен,
Тәңре кылган, ди, гаҗәп бу күлнең артын һәм төбен.
Бар имеш, ди, ул күл артында убырның карчыгы,
Йортлы-җирле, ди, үзе; акча тулы, ди, янчыгы.
Ул күл артында адашса кичкә калган кыз бала,
Ихтыярсыз, ди, әбинең йортына ул күз сала.
Ул әбинең балкыган тышка уты бик якты, ди;
Һәм ул ут чиксез матур: күкле, кызыллы, аклы, ди.
Кич белән карчыкка шундый күп адашкан кыз кереп,
Чыкмыйлар, ди, юк булалар, ди, тәмам боз күк эреп.
Бер-ике кичне тарыйлар, ди, алар карчык сачын
Һәм кашыйлар, ди, уалар, ди, аягын, аркасын.
Чәч тарарга бер печәнлектән алынган тырма, ди,
Аркасын массаж өчен бер ат җигелгән арба, ди.
Ул ята, ди; шунда гармун уйный, ди, гармунчылар;
Ул кырын салган кәпәчләр уйный, ди, бик моң, чибәр.
Гайфи абзый! Кайда күрдең? Син аларны мактадың:
Күрмисең тиз уйнаса хәтта, дидең, бармакларын!
Баш таралгач, башлый, ди, ул инде, мәлгунь касдына:
Хәбситә, ди, барча кызларны идәннең астына.
Ул ябып мәзлумаләрне мисле былбыл һәм тавык,
Ташлый, ди, кызлар симерсеннәр дип, анда чикләвек.
Шунда ук, кызлар симергәч, ул яга, ди, бер кичен
Бар тәмугдан, бар җәһәннәмнән дә киң һәм зур мичен.
Шул вакыт бер кыз ала, ди, ул чәченнән өстерәп,
Бер кулында, ди, аның дөнья кадәрле зур көрәк.
Әйтә, ди, ул: «Бу көрәккә син утыр, куштан кызым!»
Ташлый, ди, мичкә, утыргач, бер дә чытмастан йөзен.
Ул өй алдында хисапсыз, ди имеш, кыз түшкәсе,
Мөслимә, ди, барчасы, юк бер генә Катюшкәсе.
Бер чөйдә торса Рабига, Гайшә, Мәрьям түшкәсе,
Шунда, ди, бергүк эленгән дуңгызы һәм чучкасы.
Шунда кыткылдый әтәч, мыркылдый шунда дуңгызы;
Шундый хурлыкта, хәкарәттә мәхәббәт йолдызы.
Булса да мәзкүр — искә алынса да.
Сиррияте — серле ягы.
Гараибләр — ишетелмәгән, гаҗәп нәрсәләр
Касдына — теләген үтәүгә.
Хәбситә (хәбес итә) — ябып куя.
Лисле былбыл — сандугач кебек.
Мөслимә — мөселман кызы.
Катюшкә — рус кызы.
Хәкарәттә — рәнҗетелүдә, түбәнлектә.
Wednesday, June 24, 2009
While Russian leaders made themselves look churlish with their explicitly anti-American statements following the election of Barack Obama, in the Russian republic of Tatarstan, his victory was greeted with praise and even satisfaction.
In a statement, Tatar President Mintimer Shaimiev said that in the United States there was an unshakeable, stable functioning of democratic institutions.
But there is another reason why Obama’s victory is so close to Tatar hearts. A few years ago President Shaimiev introduced a new slogan, intended to promote Tatarstan as a model of political and economic development in the Russian Federation.
The Tatar people have already spent 456 years in slavery to Russian colonialism, which was as brutal as ever was known in the history of humankind. During this time many rulers of Russia came to power, as czars, emperors, first secretaries and presidents. Also, the social structure of this country changed: feudalism, capitalism, socialism, etc. Only one thing remained unchanged during all this time: a policy of forced conversion to Christianity, Russification, inhuman exploitation and physical elimination of the Tatar through permanent and goal-oriented genocide. At the beginning of the 18th century, according to a Census taken by Peter the Great, there were 5.5 million Russians and 5.5 million Tatars, and yet by the end of the 20th century there are 120 million Russians and the same 5.5 million Tatars.
At the end of the 1990s, Tatars in their final despair rose up to struggle with Russian colonialism and adopted a Declaration of Tatar State Sovereignty. They organized a referendum with supervision of foreign observers, including some form the USA, during which 61.4% of Tatarstan's population approved a claim for independence from Russia. Moreover, Tatarstan refused to participate in the referendum on the modern Constitution of Russia and to sign the Federative Agreement on the creation of the Russian Federation, confirming by this its illegitimacy. There are not any legal treaties whatsoever on the joining of the later to the Russian Federation.
The first president of Russia B. Yeltsin agreed to give to the Tatars as much liberty as they could handle. Unfortunately, this was the same kind of deceit as before, aimed only at pacifying Tatars and buying time. Whereas Russia was forced to agree to the escape of 14 colonies from their domination, it categorically refused to recognize the independence of Tatarstan, and it made its rule over this colony more severe, by the destruction of elementary rights of its people, including the right to have local legislative bodies and to select the president of Tatarstan. Right now, the Kremlin is appointing its Vice Roy from Moscow. Moreover, the Kremlin has deprived Tatars of the right to use the Latin alphabet as their own and has forced them to use the Cyrillic alphabet which is entirely unsuitable for the Tatar language. Recently it has deprived the Tatars of the opportunity to teach their children in Tatar.
Muslim Tatars are subject to severe prosecution, torture and many years of prison for refusal to worship in the mosques that are under the supervision of mullahs appointed by the Vice Roy administration, and for having Muslim books written in Arabic in their homes. At the same time the merciless robbery of the national resources of Tatarstan is continuing. The Kremlin is taking 85% of all the revenues from the sale of Tatarstan's oil for itself, and by this way depriving Tatarstan of their vital means for survival.
All of this is happening at the same time that the Russian Federation cynically and hypocritically recognized the independence of the Georgian republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. One can only ask what is the difference between the rights of the aforementioned republics and Tatarstan - a Russian colony? It is absolutely clear - there is no difference. The truth is that Russia practically enslaved the people of these republics by converting them into their citizens. Consequently, for Tatars there is no hope any more for the good will of the Russian colonizers to accomplish any kind of decolonization whatsoever.
Expressing the will of the Tatar People and in order to save them from entire elimination the Milli Mejlis (Parliament) of the Tatar People is:
1. Declaring support for the Declaration of State Sovereignty of August 30, 1990 and confirming the illegitimacy of including the Republic of Tatarstan into the Russian Federation without its consent.
2. Asking all governments and the United Nations to recognize the Independence of Tatarstan.
3. Creating the Government of Tatarstan in Exile for the protection of the interests of the Tatar People.
4. Calling all Tatars around the world to organize a permanent mass campaign in support of the Independence of Tatarstan before their governments and societies.
Adopted at a Special Meeting of the Milli Mejlis of the Tatar People on December 20, 2008.
The magnificent landscapes of the Shulgan-Tash Zapovednik, situated in the lolling hills of the southern Ural Mountains, boast exposed cliffs and thickly forested mountains, luscious green slopes and flowering meadows, pristine rivers and mysterious caves. Wildflowers and the sweet blossoms of the linden tree support wild populations of rare Burzyan honeybees. The Bashkirian people have upheld the tradition of wild-beekeeping in these mountain forests for centuries. Another natural treasure, the Kap Cave with its ancient drawings, stretches nearly three kilometers beneath the Earth's surface. Tourists come to the reserve each year to explore the cave and raft down the picturesque Belaya River, which winds along the southern border of the nature reserve.
The Shulgan-Tash Zapovednik provides refuge to wildlife from nearly all the biogeographical zones found in Eurasia and includes representatives of European, Mediterranean, Asian, and western Siberian fauna. Near the boundary of the steppe and forest-steppe biomes, grassy meadows, forests, and steppe ecosystems support this variety of wildlife.
Bears (Ursus arctos) are prevalent in the reserve, particularly in summertime when they feed in broadleaf forests. Badgers (Meles meles) roam these forests, using the cracks and crevices of caves as resting areas and for hibernation. Otters (Lutra lutra) can be seen frolicking in the numerous rivers in the reserve. Among ungulates, moose (Alces alces) often winter in the zapovednik, swimming across the Belaya River in the spring to larch forests to the west. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a more recent arrival, having gradually extended its range southward since the 1980s. Among insectivores, hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) are common in valleys and low mountains.
Rodents are the most numerous mammals in the reserve. Mountain hare (Lepus timidis) can be seen feeding in grassy meadows on mountain slopes. Red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris), Russian flying squirrels (Pteromys volans), and Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) nest in hollow trunks in oak and linden forests. Common shrews (Sorex aranues) live in forests and more rarely in dry meadows, while common and root voles (Microtus arvalis, M. oeconomus), prefer willow thickets near rivers. The golden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus), and wood and yellow-necked mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis) inhabit oak forests.
Bats dwell in the hollow cavities of trees in broadleaf forests. Long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus) and northern bats (Vespertilo nillsoni) overwinter in niches of caves. In all there are 57 mammals in the zapovednik.
Of the 198 birds in the reserve, the Northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), tufted pochard (Aythya fuligula), common golden eye (Bucephala clangula), and greater greenshank (Tringa nebularia) are common along rivers in the spring and fall. The Eurasian dipper (Cinclus cinclus), which catches small invertebrates by running along the bottom of rivers, lives here year round. The little bird spends the winter near areas of open water, for example, where the warmer waters of the Shulgan River surge from underground into the Belaya. Common crane (Grus grus), common quail (Coturnix coturnix), and corn crake (Crex crex) nest in meadows in low mountains. The great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopus major), capercaille (Tetrao urogallus), and woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) prefer broadleaf forests.
Tawny and great gray owl (Strix aluco, S. nebulosa), common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and Eurasian scops-owl (Otus scops) feed on mice and other small rodents found in meadows and broadleaf forests. Osprey (Pandion haliaëtus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), black stork (Ciconia nigra), and short-toed snake-eagle (Circaëtus gallicus) are among the endangered species of birds protected in the zapovednik.
The viviparous lizard (Lacerta vivipara) is ubiquitous in the reserve among reptiles. Amphibians include the moor frog (Rana terrestris) and common toad (Bufo bufo).
Fish are common in the dense network of rivers and streams in the zapovednik. Minnows (Phoxinus spp.) are the most common species, particularly in small streams. Siberian grayling (Thymallus arcticus), eelpout (Lota lota), pike (Esox lucius), and taimen (Hucho taimen) are common in larger rivers, such as the Belaya and Nugush.
Perhaps the most important species protected in the Shulgan-Tash Zapovednik is the wild Burzyan honeybee (Apis mellifera), listed in the Russian and Bashkirian Red Books of endangered species. The Burzyan honeybee differs from domestic bees in two ways: its darker coloring and its ability to survive in extremely cold weather. The bee is prized for its delicious golden honey and high productivity - in the short time that the linden tree blooms in summer, the busy Burzyan can produce enough honey to survive the winter. Wild beekeeping was at its peak in Bashkiria in the 18th century. By the 20th century, agriculture, industry, and logging resulted in the fall of wild beekeeping. The tradition was nearly lost, remaining only in the mountain forest areas of Bashkiria. The purebred Burzyan honeybee almost disappeared from the region altogether. Today, the Shulgan-Tash Zapovednik is the only place in the world where the wild bees are still found. Burzyan honeybees occupy natural cavities in trees but are also attracted to artificial dens carved out by humans. Ranger-beekeepers in the Shulgan-Tash Zapovednik have developed bear-like agility and skill to stabilize the threatened bee population. These rangers, all descendants of keepers of wild bees, employ instruments and skills that have been passed down in their families for centuries: how to select a tree and how to build a hive that would attract bees. With the help of these experienced beekeepers, the zapovednik carefully preserves this valuable genepool of the last bees native to central Russia, and with it the ancient tradition of beekeepers gathering wild honey.
The Shulgan-Tash Zapovednik is located near the boundary of forest and steppe biomes. Light coniferous and broadleaf forests with fragments of mountain steppe and meadows make up the majority of the terrain. The Ural Mountains, marking the border of Europe and Asia, have a high level of biological diversity. Forests and associated ecosystems cover more than 90 percent of the reserve, while rivers and other bodies of water occupy less than one percent. Old growth broadleaf forests interspersed with open clearings of tall grasses and wildflowers dominate the scenery in the zapovednik.
On lower mountain slopes, small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata) and English oak (Quercus robur) grow alongside birch (Betula spp.) and aspen (Populus tremula). European fly honeysuckle (Lonicera xylosteum), mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia), and ground cherry (Cerasus fruticosa) are found in the understory. Higher slopes are occupied by sparse oak stands with small trees. Norway maple (Acer platanoides), Russian elm (Ulmus laevis), and Scotch elm (U. glabra) are also common here. Siberian spruce (Picea obovata), white alder (Alnus incana), and black poplar (Populus nigra) occur in places. Mountain steppe habitats are rare in the reserve, occupying only the high southern-facing slopes of river valleys and rocky areas. Rocky slopes and cliff faces are covered with lichens, creating a colorful background.
White birch (Betula pendula), weeping birch (B. pubescens), and aspen grow on the lower terraces of rivers and in canyons. Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) takes over the terrain in places. Wolfsbane (Aconitum septentrionale) and nettle-leaved bellflower (Campanula trachelium) are common in the understory and forest clearings. Small shade-tolerant species like European pyrola (Pyrola rotundifolia) and chickweed wintergreen (Trientalis europaea) grow close to the ground.
Alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) is common in places near rivers. Medicinal angelica (Angelica archangelica) grows densely in open areas in the floodplains of streams. Willow (Salix spp.) thickets are found along the banks of the Belaya River, interspersed with grassy meadows.
At the end of June and early July, colorful wildflowers bloom in mountain meadows. The white flowers of oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) blanket slopes. Willow bell (Campanula persicifolia), yellow bedstraw (Galium verum), and rough-fruited cinquefoil (Potentilla recta) come into bloom. Small-flowered buttercup (Ranunculus parviflorus) with violet patches of pot marjoram (Origanum vulgare), blue speedwells (Veronica spp.), and the small white flowers of the lesser starwort (Stellaria graminea) create a rainbow of colors. The bright red Maltese cross (Lychnis chalcedonica) dots flowering meadows in places.
In all, there are 60 types of plant communities in the zapovednik made up of 789 species of vascular plants. Over 100 plant species are rare or endangered. Lathyrus litvinovii and Knautia tatarica are two species of endemics found in broadleaf forests in the Urals. These species are also relics from the pre-Iceage Pliocene Epoch, along with creeping juniper (Juniperus sabina), coltsfoot (Asarum europaeum), and giant fescue (Festuca gigantea).
The Shulgan-Tash Zapovednik is located in the western spurs of the southern Ural Mountains. The reserve is situated in the Burzyan administrative district, between the Belaya (White) and Nugush rivers. Numerous canyons and ridges, intersected by river valleys, cut through the narrow floodplain of the Belaya River. The highest point in the reserve is 600 meters above sea level.
The Belaya River flows along the southern border of the reserve in two places, while the Nugush River, the Belaya's largest tributary, hugs the reserve to the northwest. Many smaller rivers and streams flow into the Belaya.
The enormous Kap Cave stretches 2.8 kilometers underground. The cave was formed over millions of years by the erosive forces of the Shulgan River combined with karst processes. A grandiose arch-like formation marks the entrance of the cave, stretching 38 meters across and 28 meters high. Here, the Shulgan River surges up from the ground in a furious crystal clear column rising 30 meters from beneath the Earth's surface. The Kap Cave has three different levels, each with a labyrinth of corridors, halls, and galleries. Stalactites and stalagmites have formed over thousands of years in the controlled climate of the cave. The stable climate within has helped to preserve ancient cave drawings under trickles of calcite for nearly 15,000 years. Drawings depicting mammoths, rhinoceroses, early horses, and a number of puzzling symbols were discovered by reserve scientists in 1959, the year after the cave was placed under protection. The works of art are the most ancient cave drawings in Eastern Europe. Today, research is underway to determine the best way to preserve the drawings of the Kap Cave. The cave serves as a place of worship for Bashkirians to this day. Thousands of Bashkirians come to the reserve each summer to venture the cave's depths with a guide. A number of smaller caves are also found within the zapovednik, including one that used to connect to the upper reaches of the Kap Cave.
The average annual temperature in the Shulgan-Tash Zapovednik ranges from 1 to 2.9oC. The coldest month of the year is January, when temperatures average around -16oC. July is the warmest month of the year with average temperatures of 15 to 16oC.
STATE DEFENSE COMMITTEE
State Defense Committee Decree No. 5859ss
May 11, 1944 Moscow, the Kremlin
On the Crimean Tatars
During the Patriotic War [World War II], many Crimean Tatars
betrayed the Motherland, deserting Red Army units that defended the
Crimea and siding with the enemy, joining volunteer army units
formed by the Germans to fight against the Red Army; as members of
German punitive detachments, during the occupation of the Crimea by
German fascist troops, the Crimean Tatars particularly were noted
for their savage reprisals against Soviet partisans, and also
helped the German invaders to organize the violent roundup of
Soviet citizens for German enslavement and the mass extermination
of the Soviet people.
The Crimean Tatars actively collaborated with the German
occupation authorities, participating in the so-called "Tatar
national committees," organized by the German intelligence organs,
and were often used by the Germans to infiltrate the rear of the
Red Army with spies and saboteurs. With the support of the Crimean
Tatars, the "Tatar national committees," in which the leading role
was played by White Guard-Tatar emigrants, directed their activity
at the persecution and oppression of the non-Tatar population of
the Crimea and were engaged in preparatory efforts to separate the
Crimea from the Soviet Union by force, with the help of the German
Taking into account the facts cited above, the State Defense
Committee decrees that:
1. All Tatars are to be banished from the territory of the
Crimea and resettled permanently as special settlers in the regions
of the Uzbek SSR. The resettlement will be assigned to the Soviet
NKVD. The Soviet NKVD (comrade Beria) is to complete the
resettlement by 1 June 1944.
2. The following procedure and conditions of resettlement are
to be established:
a) The special settlers will be allowed to take with them
personal items, clothing, household objects, dishes and utensils,
and up to 500 kilograms of food per family.
Property, buildings, outbuildings, furniture, and farmstead
lands left behind will be taken over by the local authorities; all
beef and dairy cattle, as well as poultry, will be taken over by
the People's Commissariat of the Meat and Dairy Industries, all
agricultural production by the USSR People's Commissariat of
Procurement, horses and other draft animals by the USSR People's
Commissariat of Agriculture, and breeding cattle by the USSR
People's Commissariat of State Grain and Animal Husbandry Farms.
Exchange receipts will be issued in every populated place and
every farm for the receipt of livestock, grain, vegetables, and for
other types of agricultural production.
By 1 July this year, the USSR NKVD, People's Commissariat of
Agriculture, People's Commissariat of the Meat and Dairy
Industries, People's Commissariat of State Grain and Animal
Husbandry Farms, and People's Commissariat of Procurement are to
submit to the USSR Council of People's Commissars a proposal on the
procedure for repaying the special settlers, on the basis of
exchange receipts, for livestock, poultry, and agricultural
production received from them.
To facilitate the receipt of livestock, grain, and
agricultural production from the special settlers, the USSR
People's Commissariat of Agriculture (comrade Benediktov), USSR
People's Commissariat of Procurement (comrade Subbotin), USSR
People's Commissariat of the Meat and Dairy Industries (comrade
Smirnov), and USSR People's Commissariat of State Grain and Animal
Husbandry Farms (comrade Lobanov) are to dispatch the required
number of workers to the Crimea, in coordination with comrade
c) The People's Commissariat of Railroads (comrade
Kaganovich) is to organize the transport of the special settlers
from Crimea to the Uzbek SSR, using specially formed trains,
according to a schedule devised jointly with the USSR NKVD. The
number of trains, loading stations, and destination points are to
be determined by the USSR NKVD.
Payment for the transport will be based on the rate at which
the prisoners are transported;
d) To each train of special settlers, the USSR People's
Commissariat of Public Health (comrade Miterev) is to assign,
within a time frame to be coordinated with the USSR NKVD, one
physician and two nurses, as well as an appropriate supply of
medicines, and to provide medical and first-aid care to special
settlers in transit;
e) The USSR People's Commissariat of Trade (comrade Liubimov)
will provide all trains carrying special settlers with hot food and
boiling water on a daily basis.
To provide food for the special settlers in transit, the
People's Commissariat of Trade is to allocate the quantity of food
supplies indicated in Appendix No. 1.
3. By 1 June of this year, the Secretary of the Central
Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Uzbekistan, comrade
Iusupov, the Chairman of the Uzbek SSR Council of People's
Commissars, comrade Abdurakhmanov, and the Uzbek SSR People's
Commissar of Internal Affairs, comrade Kobulov, are to carry out
the following steps in regard to the acceptance and settlement of
the special settlers:
a) To accept and settle within the Uzbek SSR 140 to 160
thousand special settlers -- Tatars, sent by the USSR NKVD from the
The settlement of the special settlers will occur in state
farm communities, existing collective farms, farms affiliated with
enterprises, and in factory communities, for employment in
agriculture and industry;
b) To establish commissions in oblasts where the special
settlers are resettled, consisting of the chairman of the oblast
executive committee, secretary of the oblast committee, and chief
of the NKVD administration, charging them with the implementation
of all measures in connection with the acceptance and distribution
of the newly arrived special settlers;
c) To organize raion troikas, consisting of the chairman of
the raion executive committee, secretary of the raion committee,
and chief of the raion branch of the NKVD, charging them with
preparation for the distribution and organization of the acceptance
of the newly arrived special settlers;
d) To arrange the automotive transport of the special
settlers, mobilizing the vehicles of any enterprises or
institutions for this purpose;
e) To grant plots of farm land to the newly arrived special
settlers and to help them build homes by providing construction
f) To organize special NKVD commandant's headquarters, to be
maintained by the USSR NKVD, in the raions of settlement;
g) By 20 May of this year, the Uzbek SSR Central Committee
and Council of People's Commissars are to submit to the USSR NKVD
(comrade Beria) a plan for the settlement of the special settlers
in the oblasts and raions, indicating the destination points of the
4. Seven-year loans of up to 5,000 rubles per family, for the
construction and setting up of homes, are to be extended by the
Agricultural Bank (comrade Kravtsov) to special settlers sent to
the Uzbek SSR, in their places of settlement.
5. Every month during the June-August 1944 period, equal
quantities of flour, groats, and vegetables will be allocated by
the USSR People's Commissariat of Procurement (comrade Subbotin) to
the Uzbek SSR Council of People's Commissars for distribution to
the special settlers, in accordance with Appendix No. 2.
Flour, groats, and vegetables are to be distributed free of
charge to the special settlers during the June-August period, as
repayment for the agricultural production and livestock received
from them in the areas from which they were evicted.
6. To augment the automotive transport capacity of the NKVD
troops, garrisoned in the raions of settlement in the Uzbek,
Kazakh, and Kirgiz SSR's, the People's Commissariat of Defense
(comrade Khrulev) is to provide 100 recently repaired "Willys"3
motor vehicles and 250 trucks during the May-June 1944 period.
7. By 20 May 1944, the Main Administration for the Transport
and Supply of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (comrade Shirokov)
is to allocate and supply 400 tons of gasoline to locations
specified by the USSR NKVD, and 200 tons of gasoline are to be
placed at the disposal of the Uzbek SSR Council of People's
The supply of gasoline [for this purpose] is to be carried out
in conjunction with a corresponding reduction of supplies to all
8. By 15 May of this year, the Main Supply Administration of
the USSR Ministry of Forestry, USSR Council of People's Commissars
(comrade Lopukhov), is to deliver 75,000 2.75-meter railroad car
boards to the People's Commissariat of Railroads, using any means
at its disposal.
9. In May of this year, the People's Commissariat of Finance
(comrade Zverev) is to transfer 30 million rubles from the reserve
fund of the USSR Council of People's Commissars to the USSR NKVD,
for the implementation of special measures.
Chairman, State Defense Committee
cc : Comrades Molotov, Beria, Malenkov, Mikoian,
Voznesenskii,Andreev, Kosygin, Gritsenko, Iusupov,
Abdurakhmanov, Kobulov (Uzbek SSR NKVD), Chadaev --
entire document; Shatalin, Gorkin, [illegible]
Smirnov, Subbotin, Benediktov, Lobanov,
Zverev,Kaganovich, Miterev, Liubimov, Kravtsov,
Khrulev, Zhukov, Shirokov, Lopukhov -- appropriate
1. Notation in upper left-hand corner: "To be returned to the
State Defense Committee Secretariat (Part II).
2. Typed along left edge of first page: "Making copies or
extracts of this decree is strictly prohibited."
3. Willys-Overland developed and mass-produced a jeep model that
was given to the Soviet Union during World War II.
Revelations from the Russian Archives
"The word "Perm" once meant a mysterious Finno-Ugric land encompassing most of the northwestern Urals that was slowly colonized by Russians since the early medieval ages. But the city is relatively new, founded by the lieutenants of Peter 1 in 1723.
It is believed that Chekhov used Perm as inspiration for the town his Three Sisters were desperate to leave. Boris Pasternak sends his Doctor Zhivago to a city clearly resembling Perm. It would be hard for these characters to recognize their city today...
It is, however, a cultured city, with a famous ballet school and interesting museums. It is also a the base from which to visit one of the best wooden architecture museums in Russia, located in Khokhlovka, the famous ice cave in Kungur and one of the grim reminders of political persecution under the Communist -the Perm-36 labor camp."
The lovely mosque in Perm (ul Osinskaya5) that has served local Tatar Muslims since 1902 graces the skyline when viewed from the other bank of the Kama.
This is a Tatar Dance troupe from Perm
"Танцевальный коллектив «Ветерок», город Пермь.Выступает средняя группа.
Tuesday, June 23, 2009
When the main forces of the Russian army were bound at the litauischen border, 1521 the Krimtataren and the Kasaner act arene to Moscow penetrated and pillaged the occupied areas.
After the peace treaty with Lithuanias moved Muscovite the Principality of the emphasis on the fight against the Chanat Kazan', which constantly threatened Moscow of the east and which Volga trade route controlled. As Smolensk, which was the entrance to the west, opened Kazan' the way eastward. The war against the Chanat Kazan' was a fight against the remnants of the golden horde/hurdle. Kazan' laid quite often claim on the resumption of the tribute payments.
Under Iwan IV. undertook the Muscovites princes of three campaigns against Kazan'. They put 1523 at the Volga, 200 kilometers far away from Kazan', the foundation-stone for the fortress Wassilsursk. It transformed in the fight against Kazan' for the base of the Russian army.
1547 proceeded the Russian army over Vladimir and Nishni Nowgorod, the Kljasma, Oka and Volga along. The collapse of the supply of the army forced the troop guidance however to do without the campaign and begin the retreat.
Two years later the next campaign was organized. In February 1550 the Russian army included Kazan' and fired at it with artillery. The assault on this strong fortress was however badly preparatory and failed. Since the roads became in the spring impassable, Iwan IV. gave the FE storage up. 25 kilometers south of Kazan' built the Russians the fortress Swijashsk. It was established within a short time (within four weeks) and was for the Russians of greatest importance. Furthermore the fortress secured for Moscow first of all from Tschuwa, Mordwinen and Tscheremissen inhabited whole left Volga banks and their building pursued the goal of restricting „the fight of the country for Kazan' ". Secondly Swijashsk served as base for a further campaign independent of the season to Kazan'. Thus in the history of the war art a FE storage basis was created for the first time. (Only in the second half 17. Century such a base was theoretically justified by the French master of building of wars Vauban.) Thirdly Swijashsk and also Wassilsursk secured during the fighting before Kazan' the connection Muscovites of the army with the hinterland and shortened the operation line.
In the spring 1552 a third campaign began against Kazan', which considered the past experiences and with subjecting the Chanats ended.
The first period of the campaign - the preparation and strategic protection.
The war council advised in detail over the campaign plan. It decided to carry on the Oka and the Volga the foot people with the heavy artillery and the Lebensmittelvorräten. In order to secure the troops transported on ships, in Swijashsk three Polks were concentrated. The connectors of the Volga with Wassilsursk were occupied by the Russians.
The characteristic of the strategic situation consisted of that the Russian army could be attacked during its war course against Kazan' by the Krimtataren at the flank and in the back. The campaign plan considered this circumstance. The Vorhut and Nachhut went toward Murom forwards (280 kilometers of Moscow and 450 kilometers of Kazan'), while the remaining forces in Kaschira (110 kilometers of Moscow) and Kolomna (110 kilometers of Moscow and 650 kilometers of Kazan') were pulled together. To the Oka and at the Kljasma groups of forces deployed the attacks of the Krimtataren should repel. By this marching-up the Russian army became effective after two sides. It could turn into from the strategic protection and the strategic cooperation of the troops for tactical protection and for tactical cooperation.
Over the numerical strength of the army there are no accurate data. Adam it reports that approximately 150,000 men was available. This number is already unreal, because thereby to each kilometer of the containment ring 30000 put around the city would have been allotted to men.
Kurbskis “history Muscovites of the large prince” contains the following number data: Of the prince Kurbski with Kazan' led right wings consisted 45,000 men of 18,000 men Reiterei and foot people, the Vorhut of 7000 riders and the Zarenpolk of 20,000 men ‑ altogether thus. Further data are missing. Kurbski reports that the Russian army was divided during the FE storage from Kazan' into two halves. One of these halves consisted 45,000 of 30,000 riders and 15,000 men foot people - altogether men. The strength of both halves must have amounted to therefore 90,000 warriors. The Zarenpolk was however indicated around half smaller than above. The sources call a strength of altogether 15,000 men for the advance guard and the right wing. Thus the right wing before Kazan' could have been strong alone hardly 18,000 men. 50000 men can have confessed at the most before the city, so that on each kilometer of the containment ring 10,000 men came on the average. In this connection it is still noticed that the total number of the warriors consisted in the year 1630 of 92,500 men. Center 16. Century must have been far less it.
The foot people led 150 cannons of heavy caliber „apart from many field guns " and large quantities to powders for the artillery and the mini compilation with itself. Buyers accompanied the warriors with numerous goods intended for the fighters.
On 16 June 1552 the Russian army left Moscow. On the way after Kolomna the message ran in that the Krimtataren would have turned against Rjasan and Kolomna. Whereupon the advance was broken off against Kazan'. The main forces referred Kaschira position at the front line Kolomna ‑: the right wing with Kaschira; the majority with Kolytschew; the advance guard with Rostislawl; the left wing with Golutwin and the Zarenpolk with Kolomna. The Vorhut and the Nachhut remained with Murom, covered the left flank of the army and threatened the right flank of the attacking Krimtataren. The clearing-up service received the task to inform about the opponent.
On 22 June the scouts reported that before Tula a weak department of Krimtataren had emerged. On 23 June came the message of the Tulaer governor Temkin, who city besieged by strong forces of the Chans with „many cannons and Janitscharen of the Sultans ". The Turkish Sultan had strengthened the army of the Krimchans by its foot people, in order to prevent the campaign of the Russians against Kazan' by an idea directed against Moscow.
The right wing and the advance guard hurried immediately after Tula; the majority followed them.
On 24 June a further report Temkins ran into Kaschira that the crew and the inhabitants would have reduced the attack of the enemy of Tula and would have begun act arene, in view of strong Russian forces toward the city, the retreat.
The advance guard and the right wing pursued the back-yielding opponent, caught up it at the river Schiworna, „and it annihilated so many that their only few remained, so that hardly customer arrived of it at the horde/hurdle ".
Thus the attempt of the Krimtataren to defeat the campaign of the Russian army to Kazan' rejected. The strategic protection of the campaign took place in the form of the attack. The well organized clearing-up service supplied in time information about the opponent.
The second period of the campaign - the advance of the Russian army against Kazan'.
On 1 July the entire Russian army was concentrated in Kolomna. There a war council consisting of Bojaren and Woiwoden was held and the campaign plan was specified more exactly.
The war council decided to proceed in two march directions against Kazan'. The one led across Rjasan and Mestschera and the other one across Vladimir and Murom. The column penetrating over Rjasan should secure the movements of the troops advancing over Vladimir and the foot people on the ships before a any assault of the Nogaier act arene.
The Rjasaner column consisted of the majority, the advance guard and the right wing, the 'Wadimirer from the Vorhut, the Nachhut, the Zarenpolk and the left wing. Both columns should unite in the area of the Alatyr to the Sura and proceed from there further against Swijashsk. On 3 July the Rjasaner troops applied and arrived to 13. in Murom. There a review was held. On 15 July the Vorhut sat down against Alatyr in motion, followed from serve-requiring workers, who repaired the roads and struck bridges. On 20 July the Wladimirer left column Murom, while the other one already passed Rjasan.
In the evening 4 of August both columns united with at the Sura settlement Borontschejewo Gorodist lain. On 5 August the Russian army combined to a column continued its march in the following order: Vorhut, advance guard, Zarenpolk, majority and Nachhut. The right and the left wing proceeded on parallel roads at the flanks of the majority in a line with the Zarenpolk.
In the morning 13 of August the Russian army Swijashsk approached. There already were the artillery, the FE storage devices and the Lebensmittelvorräte. A quantity consisting of Tscheremissen, Tschuwa, Mordwinen and act arene had appeared itself, the sources calls 20000 men, a number, which is certainly exaggerated.
When the Rjasaner troops at that removed approximately 700 kilometers for Sura concerned, they had put 24 day marches, i.e. on the average 30 kilometers back per day. The army passed the way of the Sura up to the fortress Swijashsk in 8 days, plus a rest daily; the day marches extended on the average over 28 to 30 kilometers. If one considers bad road conditions, the large mass of the marching troops and the ponderous unit train, then the cruising speed can be called rather high and as result of a good march organization.
The third period of the campaign - the containment of Kazan', the FE storage, its tactical protection and the storming of the fortress.
Into Swijashsk the Russian army inserted a rest by 17 August and began then to cross the Volga; that took two days. The roads were aufgeweicht by the pouring rain, all bridges and club dams destroyed, so that the march of the advance guards from the connector to the river Kasanka (20 kilometers) dragged on 3 days long (of 17. by 19 August). The remaining troops put this distance back on the repaired road on one day, reached Kazan' and referred on the Volga bank position.
Iwan IV. sent to the Chan of Kazan', Edigei, a message, into it requested to capitulate. But Edigei relied on the firmness of the defenses, its strong troops and on the support of the population of Kazan'.
The city became in the northeast and southwest by with difficulty passable small rivers protecting the swampy Kasanka and the verschlammten Bulak. The city extended to a periphery of 5 kilometers. Kazan' was a strong fortress. 15 meters deep ditch surrounded the city a 6.5 meter more broadly by all sides a wooden wall armoured with 15 towers and. On the controlling height within the fortress was a base with a high earthfilled and with 8 towers provided eichenen wall. The fortress was most easily from the east and accessible from the southeast. east the Arsker of field the Arsker forest lay. There those had established removed from the fortress, an attachment, from which they could fall troops in the backs, attacking Kazan', to act arene, 15 kilometers,
On 21 August a tatarischer defector reported on the numerical strength, the condition of the crew and the defense plan of the fortress. In the city was 30,000 men Kasaner troops and 3000 Nogaier. In the Arsker attachment 20,000 to 30,000 men had entrenched itself strong Reiterei under the guidance of the prince Japantscha. (All numbers stated in the sources are at least high around the double too.) The defense plan of Kazan' saw active fighting of the fortress crew (losses) ago before and attacks in the backs of the Belagerer of the Arsker forest.
On 21 August the Russian troops struck wood for the building of Palisaden and created branches for twisting digging baskets near. Meanwhile the Woiwoden on a war council met and prepared a plan, after which Kazan' should be included.
On 22 August the army on six bridges exceeded the Kasanka, took position at the Flußmündung and advanced on the next morning further against Kazan'. There to fight one army-look held, on that lwan IV. personally its warriors contacted and it admonished, courageously.
The first stage of the FE storage ‑ the containment of Kazan'.
After army-look continued to penetrate the Russian army on Kazan'. When men strong Vorhut had overcome the 7000 on 22 August the Bulak, had approached the mountain erklommen and the fortress wall, it was attacked by a strong act arene department, which undertook a loss, surprisingly. (The sources report that the numerical strength amounted to act arene of 5000 riders and 10,000 men foot people.) The Vorhut was split into two parts. You hurried however the Strelitzen to assistance and reduced the attack act arene. Whereupon the Vorhut turned into to the counter attack and drove the enemy up to the town-gates back. At the same time the fortress cannons opened the fire; it remained however without effect.
In the evening 23 of August the Russian troops included the city and „intercepted from all sides and entrances to the city; nobody of them could come the city abandoned still into the city ".
The advance guard and the majority referred its camp on the Arsker field. The right wing with the Kosaken set up itself on the northern bank of the Kasanka, the Nachhut to the Bulakmündung, the left wing further above the Bulak, the quantity Schig Aleis at the cemetery, south to the fortress, formed from the local population, and the Zarenpolk south the left wing on the Zarenwiese; it belonged to the general reserve. All Polks received the instruction to make a digging basket available for ever ten men. In addition each warrior had to procure a plank for the building of the rear attachment.
In the evening 24 of August a violent storm arose and sank many boats loaded with supplies. With a part of the army doubts about the success of the campaign moved. Iwan IV. decided however to begin the FE storage work. Swijashsk and Moscow had to supply new supplies, so that will maintain the FE storage could.
On 25 August the guidance instructed to occupy the section between the right wing and the advance guard. During this maneuver those undertook act arene a surprising loss. With the help of the advance guard the opponent was thrown back however with large losses for him into the city.
The second stage of the FE storage ‑ the execution of the FE storage work.
A careful investigation of the attachments of the opponent and their entrances preceded the beginning of the FE storage work. Woiwoden with small groups were day and night on the way.
It was decided to divert primarily the Kasanka from the city in order to withdraw from the crew and the inhabitants the drinking water. Whereupon the Kasaner had to get the water from a source which was because of the river course.
At the night to 26 August the troops established 200 meters of the fortress wall a Zirkumvallationslinie. The second line, consisting of digging baskets, lay only 100 meters far away from the Stadtmauer. On 26 August the fortress crew undertook a loss, in order to disturb the FE storage work. The whole night over embittered one fought; on the next morning the opponent was back-pushed into the city. On the same day the commanders of the artillery let the cannons position by groups. In order to secure the artillery, „they instructed the Strelitzen and Kosaken, against the city before the digging baskets in ditches to entrench itself ".
In swampy places, where it was impossible to set up digging baskets the Russians' established Palisaden. Opposite the Zarewer, Arsker and Atalykower gate of Kazan' was built an attachment. From here the Russians covered the FE storage work by arrow shots and Arkebusenfeuer.
On 29 August the whole city was surrounded by attachment plants Muscovites of the army. It began one day after to destroy the Stadtmauern with wall crushers and mortars. 150 cannons fired at the fortress and the city.
On the Arsker field was set up a 13 meter high wood tower. The instruction was issued to equip and with Strelitzen occupy it with 10 large cannons as well as 50 hook cans. The Russians in the section between the Zarewer and Arsker gate rolled this tower to the fortress wall near. Whereupon the tower crew opened the fire on the fortress wall and the roads of the city. The fire impaired strongly maneuverability besieged troops.
On 31 August Russian war engineers tackled the mini compilation and let four mine lugs drive in, in order to blow up different objects. One this lug was put on by the Mineuren under the secret course, which the Kasaner used, in order to get water. The breakup of this lug destroyed the secret course. Now the population had to scoop the water from puddles and wells. That was one of the causes for the spreading epidemics and for the decomposition beginning of the combat morale of the opponent.
Furthermore the Mineure dug two lugs in the section of the Arsker of gate and further with the Nogaier gate. The mini compilation ran under the total line of capable Russian war engineer and Djaken Wyrodkow.
The crew of Kazan' tried to obstruct the FE storage work and undertook daily losses. On 26 September the digging baskets to close were put forward to the edge of the fortress ditch. On the same day (after the sources 10000 men) strong a hostile department undertook a loss and conquered several digging baskets. It was thrown back however with large losses into the city.
The third stage of the FE storage - work which tactical protection of the FE storage.
The attacks of the department of Japantschas of the Arsker forest and the assaults of the Tscheremissen from the Volga valley made the FE storage work more difficult. The Russian army was threatened constantly in the back and was suspended thereby a strong physical and moral load.
Edigei had organized the losses from the city and the simultaneous attacks of the department of Japantschas well. As communication signal one served „large flag the disbelieving one ", which besieged of on the high city tower were go-eaten. On this signal the attacks of the fortress and from the forest took place at the same time.
On 28 August the act arene department Japantschas repeated surprisingly its attack on the Russian troops, however by parts of the majority into the forest was thrown back. These fights showed, how necessary a reliable tactical protection of the FE storage work was.
In order to discuss the tactical situation, a new war council was called up. It decided to divide the entire army. One half should besiege the fortress, the other one, under the guidance of the princes Gorbaty ‑ Schuiski and Serebrjany, had the Belagerer at the field side to secure and against Japantscha proceed at the same time. But 50 per cent of all troops (according to the instructions Kurbskis of 30,000 riders and 15,000 men foot people) was intended.
On 30 August the Russians began the fighting against the troops Japantschas. The princes sent small groups in the Arsker forest, in order to draw act arene out, and put their main forces into the ambush. When these encountered soon thereafter act arene, they withdrew themselves. From the ambush the main forces defeated act arene. The Russians pursued the remnants of the enemy 15 kilometers far.
Soon the Tscheremissen the right wing fell into the back. The attacks were however struck back. The Russians of 25 kilometers before Kazan' caught up and destroyed the fleeing opponent there the enemy.
After the troops Japantschas had again collected their forces, they resulted the Russians again from the Arsker forest. In order to finally secure the hinterland of the Russian troops, the guidance decided to destroy the tatarischen attachments in the Arsker forest. This task was transferred to a department under the prince Gorbaty ‑ Schuiski.
In the Arsker forest was more surrounded by sumps and with difficulty passable Dickicht a well fastened Ostrog, in which the troops Japantschas kept themselves hidden.
On 6 September the Russian Reiterei and the foot people penetrated into the forest and proceeded against the Arsker Ostrog. When they approached the attachment, the Reiterei served, and the entire department divided, in order to attack the Ostrog from both sides.
On 8 September the Russians conquered the Arsker camp after tough fight, destroyed the attachments and cleaned the entire periphery of Kazan' of the opponent. On 16 September they returned with large Lebensmittelvorräten to their main forces.
This enterprise was very significant. The being made by the troops Japantschas lifted the moral in the Russian army. The threat in the back of the Russian army was eliminated.
At the end of September approached the FE storage work its end. The troops prepared for the storm.
The fourth stage of the FE storage - the storm on the fortress.
The storm was determined at 2 October. The troops made wood and earth available, over the eve of the storming. the ditches fill up and bridges to strike to be able. The Russians prepared the mines filled with powder for breakup.
They demanded those act arene on to capitulate again. But act arene prepared for the defense. Hasty they established bar walls at the break-throughs of the fortress wall and covered them with earth.
On 30 September the Russian Mineure blew up the lug pushed forward under the Vorwerke opposite the Arsker gate. The Russians used and pushed the confusion with the opponent, resulting from it, the digging baskets closely to the fortress gate near.
In the meantime the Strelitzen and Kosaken had filled the ditches with brushwood and earth and ignored to the storm. The Russians struck back all hostile counter attacks, conquered the Arsker tower and penetrated into the city. The Woiwode Worotynski asked the tsar to let the troops proceed to the general storm. Iwan IV. however knew that the remaining troops were not yet sufficient preparatory, and instructed, to withdraw the troops from the city. The Arsker tower remained in the hands of the Strelitzen.
The carefully prepared plan for the storming planned to distribute the troops and cover their backs. The main thrust should be led against the eastern and southwest side of the fortress, where breaches were put already into the wall. The storm columns at other parts of the fortress wall should bind as strong a forces of the opponent as possible. There were altogether six storm columns.
Each Polk had to storm a certain gate. The cooperation of the individual Polks was organized.
Each Polk unfolded in three lines. In first the Kosaken and the service people of the Bojaren arranged into groups of one hundred proceeded; in second the storm column, which formed the main forces of the department, and in third the forces intended for the support of the Polks - the special reserves.
Certain measures secured the army against attacks in the back. A part of the majority and the department of Schig ‑ the Arsker road and the Tschuwaschenstraße, part of the Zarenvolks the Nogaier road and another occupied Aleis those Halit road. A further department engaged in Staroje Gorodist.
The troops should keep themselves on 2 October at three o'clock, two hours before sunrise, to the storm ready. The explosion of the mine lugs should release the storm.
The first phase of the storm ‑ the beginning of the storm and the hostile counter attacks.
After incipient crack of the midnight Iwan IV. received the message that the lugs finished in the section of the Arsker and Nogaier of gate were filled with powder. The troops received the instruction to finish to the storm.
During sunrise the lug in the section of the Arsker of gate detonated and destroyed a part of the fortress wall; the lug at the Nogaier gate followed it. The artillery fired from all pipes.
Under the protection of the fire of the Strelitzen and that sheet contactors walked the Russians to the storm. The opponent offered violent resistance, answered the fire from its cannons and Arkebusen, the überschüttete storming with hot pitch and let heavy planks to her fall down.
Nevertheless the Russians could act arene of the walls strike back, and of the Arsker field into the city break in. It came to the street fight. When the storming troops penetrated more deeply into the city, those collected act arene their forces, turned into to the general counter attack and pushed the Russians gradually back. The crisis of the assault matured near.
The second phase of the storm - the attack of the general reserve.
During the successful hostile counter attack the prince Worotynski Iwan IV. asked for support. Half of the Zarenpolks served and advanced against the city. The fresh forces reduced the hostile counter attack and tore the yielding Russian warriors with itself. The enemy withdrew itself to the palace of the Chans. Violently it resisted still some time and had to then vacate the palace.
The third phase of the storm - the pursuit and destruction of the remnants of the opponent.
About 6000 act arene had withdrawn themselves into the lower city and let themselves at the fortress walls to the bank of the Kasanka down there. There it received an artillery salvo. Their arms put and overcame act arene down the Kasanka. 200 to 300 men strong a rider department of the right wing tried to move the enemy the way however one threw back. Act arene fell to the forest. But they were surprised there by the troops, which were used for the protection of the storm. Act arene were struck.
Thus Kazan' was conquered.
On 11 October the Russian army applied again into the homeland. In order to secure the east border of the Russian state, the Russians in Kazan' let a strong crew back with the instruction to rebuild all destroyed attachment plants.
In Nishni Nowgorod the Dworjanen and all war-service-requiring became home to dismiss, while the Strelitzen with the artillery returned to Moscow.
The conquest of the Chanats Kazan' was for the Rus of great economic and political importance. This success eliminated first of all the stove of the constant ideas Kazan' act arene. Secondly now the Volga road for the trade of the Rus with Azerbaijan, Persia, India, Siberia and Central Asia became passably. Thirdly subjecting Kazan' vacated one of the obstacles from the way, which opposed the successful fight for the education of a centralized Russian state. Fourth the victory created favorable conditions for the fight for the reunification of the Russian countries at the west border and for the entrance to the sea over the Chanat. The hinterland was now reliably secured. The conquest of Kazan', the incorporation Astrachans 1556 and subjecting the Nogaier horde/hurdle were later the basis, which brought the Russian multinational state out. By the integration of Kazan' and Astrachans into the Russian state the fight for the Baltic countries became strategically secured.
In the campaign against Kazan' the progress showed up in the quantitative and qualitative development of the Russian army. Economic and political strengthening of the Russian centralized state led to a further centralization of the army. Its individual different components corresponded to the leftovers of feudalen splintering in the Rus. They made the organization in the troop guidance and the cooperation more difficult of the individual branches of service.
The method of the recruitment increased the quality and quantity of the Russian army. With Kazan' it proved and high combat characteristics to discipline. Crucial Kraft, which the exit of the fight determined, were not the Dworjanen, but the Strelitzen, the service people of the Bojaren (Cholopen) and the Kosaken.
In this connection some interesting strategic moments are important. First of all the Russian army became on the war with Kazan' in conformity with the material strategic situation, due to which prepares experiences of the preceeding fights and the knowledge of the opponent. Secondly the strategic protection carried the character of active fighting, because it eliminated the obstacles, which opposed the combat goal. A passive protection would have only splintered the forces. Thirdly organized the guidance an advance in three directions, including the route of march of the foot people on the ships. A column secured the movement of the remaining troops. Finally it is to be still emphasized that the Russian troop guidance sought to achieve toughly and consistently the put strategic goals.
The accomplished organizational measures had the goal to secure the campaign materially and morally. The foot people on the ships carried food except artillery and FE storage devices also. That was already the beginning of a central supply of the troops. Regular military consultation examined the character of the fighting in each stage of the campaign and specified the distribution of the means and forces. The march, the containment of the fortress, which was FE storage work and the storm well organized.
Furthermore the tactical measures carried for an active character for the protection of the FE storage. The Russian troop guidance was limited not only to the passive tactical protection, but eliminated by active fighting the obstacle, which obstructed the successful execution of the FE storage work and the storm. The FE storage work unfolded gradual and constantly approached the object which can be stormed. The method of the parallels, i.e. the approach of the FE storage means to the attack objects developed by ditch work and an appropriate shifting of the firing position of the artillery. This method justified Vauban only in the second half 17. Century.
In connection with the FE storage work and the distribution of troops on the attack objects elements of the planning of the storm showed up. The Strelitzen and the storm columns cooperated; the special reserves and the general reserve made it possible to create a tactical depth and direct the storm. The punctual employment of the general reserve broke the hostile resistance. The Russian Reiterei proved that she could fight served.
The artillery played a ever larger role. During the FE storage and storming of Kazan' the artillery destroyed the defenses, prepared the attack of the storm columns and rejected the attempts of the opponent to break through the line of the defenses. The cannons were by groups arranged - the condition for later arising of the batteries.
After the sources Strelitzen at the battle took part, a proof for it that the meaning of the hand-held weapons increased.
With Kazan' the art of the Minierens developed. There the underground secret course for the water supply were destroyed and breaches into the fortress wall were struck. The relieved income of the fortress.