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Fragment from the book [M].[Z]. Of [khafizova] “Nizhniy-Novgorod Tatars”
Tatars -[mishari] in the multinational province
Contemporary Tatars are one of the important [tyurkoyazychnykh] peoples, after which was fastened this name, which arrived into Europe from the east in 13 centuries together with the Tatar Mongols. In contrast to [etnonima] “the Tatars”, connected with the newcomers, the history of Tatar people is entirely different. It has deep local roots, about which long ago it was known. Thus, [N].[G]. Chernishevsky, who well knew history, culture, life, the customs of Tatars, that managed Tatar language and letter, that studied their history on the basis of the Tatar sources, emphasized that “from the present [rymskikh], Kazan' and Orenburg Tatars hardly there is one person, who originated from soldiers [Batyya]; what present Tatars - descendants of those tribes, which lived in these places and subjugated [Batyem], as were subjugated Russians”.
The efforts of many researchers proved that between the Mongolians of 12-13 centuries and the contemporary Tatars there is in common either in the language or in anthropology nor in the material and spiritual culture. The ethnic roots of Tatars depart to the local Turkish tribes, which lived in East Europe in the territory between [Uraloi] and by the Carpathians still at the end of the past and the beginning of new era, they continue to live now. The fact is that, as researchers assert, “here there was no change of peoples, it changed only by [etnonim], since in the different periods of history as the ruled tribes among many Turkish tribes she came out the one, the another tribe. Hence and the change of general for the Turks [etnonima]”.
For example, the role of the leading tribes and carriers of general [etnonima] in the specific stage of history passes in this territory to [bulgaram] and Mishars - two important Turkish tribes, which spoke on the dialects of one and the same [kipchakskogo] language, which were the ethnic basis of Volga Tatars. (By [etnonim] “of [bulgary]” in the translation from the Turkish language it indicates “river people”, and “Mishars” ([mazhgary], [mochary], [mozhary], Magyar) - “forest people”) both ethnoses passed the prolonged way of formation, development, after becoming in the course of time the independent national character of Kazan' Tatars and Tatars -[misharey].
The region of the forming of Kazan' Tatars it was left bank, eastern regions of Volga Region. The basis of their ethnogeny, together with [bulgarami], were other Turkish tribes, including of [kipchaki] and [otyurchennye] adjacent Ugro-Finnish tribes. But Tatars -[mishari], in contrast to the Kazan' Tatars, were formed in the earth of Volga right bank, the southwestern territories of Volga Region, in the regions between the Volga and the Oka and in The [meshcherskoy] lowland - so that named by Russians, as assume researchers, on the name of its basic inhabitants.
The tracks of [misharey], that lived pell-mell with other tribes in the enormous territory of East Europe, were observed even to our era, and with the average flow of the Oka from 2 centuries of our time. The distant ancestors of [misharey] were “[akatsiry]”, and later - [mozhary], especially the people “of [kipchak]- Tatars”, which played significant role in molding of Tatars -[misharey] as the component part of the Tatar people.
In this process participated also the [otyurechennye] Finno-Ugric tribes and [obulgarizovannye] [burtasy]. Specifically, [burtasy] and [mozhary] are called by some researchers as the straight predecessors Of the [sergachskoy] (or ancient [alatyrskoy]) group of [misharey] - ancestors of contemporary Nizhniy-Novgorod Tatars.
The process of the rapprochement of Tatars -[misharey] with the Kazan' Tatars engaged the number of centuries. The bases of consolidation were laid even in the times of Volga [Bulgarii], whose earth reached the average flow of the Oka River. This tendency somewhat is accelerated in the epoch of gold horde, whose authority applied to the regions of the settling of [bulgar] and by [misharey]. Was great in this the role of Islam and [kypchakskogo] language, which became official language and language of entire [zolotoordynskogo] ethnos, dialects of which they were, as is known, [bulgarskiy] and [misharskiy] languages.
However, in the times of Kazan' khanate (1438-1552 yr) the rapprochement of [bulgar] and Mishar noticeably is weakened in view of their separate existence, when bulk of [misharey] proved to be in the camp of the enemies of [kazantsev]. Specifically, the final formulation of Kazan' Tatars into the feudal national character during this period completes. Ethnic generality and appearance of [misharey] is formed in the dependence on the Moscow state from the middle of 15 centuries in the larger part in The [kasimovskom] khanate (1452-1684 yr.), and [sergachskikh] of [misharey] - in the composition of the multinational Nizhniy-Novgorod earth.
From the second-half 16 centuries begins further rapprochement of Tatars -[misharey] with the Kazan' Tatars in connection with the beginning of the mass migrations of [misharey] to the eastern earth, that were being continued to the first half 18 centuries. In those years they widely settled on the right bank of Volga river, in The [zakamskie] regions and [Priurale], which led to strengthening of the integration processs between [misharyami] and Kazan' Tatars, and, in the final analysis, it was formed the united people of Volga-Ural Tatars. Shaping of Tatar bourgeois nation, which was being continued to the end of the 19- beginning of the 20th centuries, began from the end of 18 centuries.
Considerable [misharey] entered also into the composition of Russians, a Bashkir, [nogaytsev] and Chuvashs. At present [mishari] live in the territory of many regions and republics of Volga Region and [Priuralya], compose also the majority of the Tatar population, which lives in the large cities of Russia and other states of the CIS. Is in spite of the territorially scattered stay, they realize themselves by the indissoluble part of the united Tatar people, united by the proximity of ethnic roots and by the generality of history, religion, culture and way of life with the Kazan' Tatars. [Mishari] Kazan' Tatars tell on the dialects of one and the same Tatar people language. “If as the basis of the phonetic system of Tatar literary language lay average (Kazan') dialect, notes academician [M].[Z].[Zakiev], that as the basis of morphological system - [misharskiy]”.Is such the brief history of [etnonima] and ethnos of Volga Tatars.