Thursday, May 26, 2011

Yar Chally - Яр Чаллы

There are many Tatars living in Yar Chally - Яр Чаллы (the Russian name is Naberezhniye Chelny).

Kamaz and ZMA trucks are produced there, and the city is one of the largest planned centers in the world related to vehicle production. With more than two square miles dedicated to production, the Kamaz plant is the largest vehicle factory in the world.

SPRUT Technology, JSC. oldest Russian's developers of PC-based  CAx software including SprutCAM was founded at 1987 in Yar Chally.

History of Yar Chally

 The first Russian migrants organized a small settlement Mys Chelny in 1626 on land abandoned by the earlier population, which had lain empty and become overgrown by forest.
 "In the court village of Elabuga on the River Kama in 1626 a peasant commune was formed headed by Fyodor Nefer'ev Popov. The commune resolved having crossed the River Kama to settle on the Ufa side on lands long abandoned by the previous population and lying empty. Here they formed a small settlement on the cape at the confluence of the rivers Chelninka and Melekeska and began to live on arable land, taking advantage of the privilege then established of freedom from quit rent. The peasants were allocated a lot of land: from the upper direction from the River Shil'na and from the lower along the River Bilyanka, between these rivers from the mouth to the heights." Pereyakovich. "The Volga Region in the 17th Century".

Previously a semi-nomadic population had lived here but abandoned these lands which probably occurred in the period following the conquest of the Kazan Khanate.   Why did these lands lie empty?  According to the scribe's book of court lands of 1563 the Khan owned very large patrimonial lands around Elabuga.  On the left side of the Kama there were also lands belonging to the Khan.  This is proved by the fact that after annexation to the Russian state all the Khan's lands were reckoned among court possessions.  By 1651 the village of Mys was already being called a trading settlement.  By that time not only migrants from Russia were living here but also enterprising traders and there were 112 households and 6 mills.  They opened up and worked the empty lands on the left bank of the Kama, sent people for military service to fortified camps of the Zakam'e defence line to protect the region and later also sent peasants to the newly organised Urals factories.

In the 19th century the Berezhnye Chelny quay was a major center for the grain trade.  Up to 1920 it was part of Menzelinsk uyezd of the Ufa province and it became part of the TAASR when it was formed.  From 1922-1930 it was the center of the Chelny canton. From 1982 to 1988 it bore the name Brezhnev.

Ancient times

Ancient Settlement of Chally (Challinskoe Gorodishche)

Situated on the River Kama near Orlovka.  During excavations here Bulgar-made metal plows have been found revealing the early development here of metallurgy and plowing in agriculture.

The settlement is dated by archaeologists to the time of the Golden Horde (13th -14th centuries), but it is entirely possible that Bulgars lived here in an earlier period considering that on the River Ik where it is joined by the River Menzelya there were Bulgar fortifications where they halted the first invasion of Russia by Mongols in 1223.

It is known that in the Golden Horde period on the territories occupied by the Mongols, agriculture ceased.  It is difficult to suppose that in fleeing from the enraged hordes the Bulgars could have taken their metal agricultural implements from their earlier places of habitation to new ones unknown to them. It therefore seems more likely that the Chally settlement arose when the Great Bulgar state was an independent state, that is before 1236-1237.  And it was destroyed by the armies which passed through here in 1395 of one of the last of the descendants of the Genghis Khan Tokhtamysh and his conqueror "the great conqueror the world", Tamerlane or else by the Kazan Khans who seized this part of the Kama shore after them (in the first half of the 15th century)

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