Pugachev Exercises Justice At Kazan- G. Goreloff, Russia, 1928
Emelyan Pugachev (approx 1730 - 1777)
The leader of the peasants' revolt in 1744 who declared himself Czar. The battle for Kazan, a significant episode in the history of the city and the whole area, was the culmination of the revolt and ended in defeat for Pugachev. However the personality and fate of this popular hero were to draw both his contemporaries and future generations to Kazan like a magnet. Two poets, Derzhavin and Pushkin, came specially to Kazan to collect material about Pugachev, one as an officer on a secret assignment, the other in preparation for his future classic, "The Captain's Daughter".
The rebel himself
Here is the thorough wiki article on the Pugachev Rebellion