Monday, November 30, 2009
There was much more to this event than these few photos would indicate. The Bina was full; a short prayer, a presentation from the kids in Tatar School and then food!
Килə алсаң бүген, Тукай,
Ни əйтер идең икəн?
Сагышлы йөзе татарның
Күпкə яктырды микəн?
Җитми сазың авазы;
Булалмый сөю назы.
Газиз ана телебезнең
Ят телне кулай күрəлəр
Караш ташлап дөньябызга,
Әйтерсең кебек сүзең.
Күрəзəлəп карыйм əле,
-Уян, татар мəрт йокыңнан,
Гасыр бетеп барадыр!
Иҗтиһад ит, эшкə башла,
Телең бетеп барадыр!
Күрсəтче безгə, Тукаем,
Чыгу юлын афə ттəн:
Бабай оныгын аңламый –
Икесе - ике миллəттəн…
Тукай юк шул… фикерлəре –
Изге васыять күңелдə.
Тагы бер кат əйтеп үтим
Сезгə Тукай телендə:
- Уян ,татар, гасыр бетə,
Хəстəреңне күреп кал!
Тарихларга ул үткəнче,
Фатихасын алып кал!
"Tukay Belen Soyleshu"
"A Conversation with Tukay"
These are from an online .pdf book of poetry written in Tatarcha, in Cyrillic,
and quite well done.
The Bashkir Language
The Bashkir language (Bashqort tele) belongs to the Kypchak-Bolgar group of the Turkic languages of the Uralic family.
The Bashkir language is the language of the native population of Republic of Bashkortostan. The number of Bashkir speaking people including the CIS countries according to the census totals 2.500.000. Outside the Republic the Bashkirs inhabit the Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Perm, Kurgan, Samara, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen regions. Republics of Tatarstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and other, the city of Moscow...
Bashkort (Bashqord) is the original name of the Bahkir people dating back to the 7-th century. Since that time the ethnonym Bashkort has become unanimously accepted. The Bashkorts occur from Kypchaks (Qypsaktar), former Sarmatians (Scythians), which lived in southern Ural, arlier than 5000 BC. They have inhabited and constructed the union of tribes on the Southern Uralse in 2-3 AD. There exist a great many hypotheses on the origin of the ethnonym Bashkort , the most accepted being the following versions: a) Bas+kor+t "principal tribe, people; b)"Bash+ qOrd "Head Order".
The ferst written language based upon the Runic. The Arabic script started spreading after introducing Islam in the 10th century. The Traditional written language based on old Ural (old Turki) script came into use in 15-16th centuries. The Bashkir written language performed the functions on the basis of the Arabic script till 1928 when it was substituted by the Latin letters. In 1940 under Stalin's order, the new alphabet based on Cyril was generally adopted. The Modern Bashkir language has been formed in the end 19 - the beginning of 20 centuries. The main role in the development of the Modern Bashkir language belongs to prominent scholars, such as M.Umetbayev, M.Akmulla, M.Gafuri, Sh.Babich and others.
The government of the precedent Putin has forbidden in 2002 to all native peoples of the Russian Federation to use the Roman alphabet type for theirs national languages, but last years, some enthusiasts conduct informal searches of creation of the New Roman Bashkir alphabet see the Bashkir alphabet "BashLa".
The main role in the development of the Modern Bashkir language belongs to prominent scholars, such as M.Umetbayev, M.Akmulla, M.Gafuri, Sh.Babich and others.
The Bashkir national language consists of 3 dialects:
southern, eastern and northern-western. A number of RAD institutes and institutions of higher education carry out research work on the Bashkir language - The Institute of History, language and literature of the Ufa Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, the Bashkir Institution of Education Development, the Bashkir branch of RAD Institute of national schools of RF being among them. The chairs of the Bashkir and general linguistics of the BSU, the chair of the Bashkir philology in Sterlitamak Teachers Training Institute, the chair of Turcology of Chelyabinsk university, the chair of Bashkir philology of Orenburd State Institute are also involved in study of the Bashkir language.
The Bashkir language alonside with other Turkic and Uralic languages is investigated abroad, namely at Turk Dili Kurumu Scientific Society (Ankara, Turkey), the chair of Tur-kology (Berlin University), the chair of Uralic languages (Seged University, Hungary).
THE PRINCIPAL LEXICAL AND GRAMMATIC FEATURES OF BASHKIR LANGUAGE
The Bashkir language belongs to the synharmonic type of languages as it is subjected to the strict law of synharmonism depending on the first syllable of the word, for ex. keshe (êåøå) "a man", ataj (àòàé) 'Father', esej (ýñýé) 'Mother', tezelesh (òýçýëýø) 'construction', korolosh (êîðîëîø) 'building', êûëûñ 'a sword', etc. The synharmonic type of language determines the phonomopphological structure of the form of the word: àuyl ' village', àuyl-dan 'from a village', ken 'a day', KEN-DAR 'days' and so on.
In accordance with the typology classification The Bashkir language is thought to belong to the agglutinative languages: wordbuilding and wordchanging affixes succesively join the root (stem) of the word. Each has the only grammar meaning. For instance, ÀUYL-DÀ—GhY-LAR-ZAN 'from villade dwellers.'
All nous connect the plural suffixes: kitap-tar, baqsa-lar, tau-zar, ishek-tär, kejem-där.
The predicate affixes are the same either for verbs or nouns: bez studentbýz "We are students"; bez ukýjbýz (áåç óêûéáûç)."We study".
The conversion (transition of one part of speech into another) is highly developed in the Bashkir language: jylmajyu (éûëìàéûó) - 'to smile', - jylmajyu éûëìàéûó 'smile', jazyusy (ÿçûóñû) 'writing' - jazyusy (ÿçûóñû) 'writer', kart (kapò) 'old' - kart (kapò) 'old man'.
THE LEXICAL COMPOSITION OF THE BASHKIR LANGUAGE
More than two-thirds of the Bashkir lexicon belongs to the common Turkic lexical layer. The considerable part of the Bashkir lexicon is composed of the loan-words. For instance, about 20 % of the Bashkir lexicon is borrowed from the West European countries (kosmos, foto, autobus). About 12 % of the borrowed lexical units are taken from the Arabic and Persian languages (kitab, admiral, azat).
In 1999 the law "On languages of the peoples of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was adopted. The Bashkir language together with the Russian language received the status of the state languages. The Law will provide the development of the social functions of the Bashkir language as one of the state languages of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
The Contemporary Bashkir language represents the highly developed literary language. The Modern Bashkir Linguistics has achieved much success in investigation ' the urgent problems of the Bashkir language.
BashkirBashkir Citations Bashkir Links
Number of Speakers: Two million (1.8 million residing in Russia)
Key Dialects: The Bashkir language divides into three main dialects: Kuvakan (Mountain Bashkir), Yurmaty (Steppe Bashkir), and Burzhan (North-western Bashkir). The literary or standard form of the language is based on the Kuvakan dialect with some elements of steppe dialect Yurmaty.
Geographical Center: Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia
Bashkir (also referred to as Basquort/Bashkort) is spoken primarily in the republic of Bashkortostan between the Volga River and the Ural mountains in Russia. It is also spoken in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and in the Russian regions of Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Kurgan, Perm, Sverdlovsk, Samara, and Saratov. A language of the Kypchak-Bolgar group of the Western Uralic subfamily of the Turkic languages, Bashkir is closely related to the (Volga) Tatar language. In many ways, the language is linguistically an amalgamation of a variety of properties borrowed from other languages that came into contact with it. The influence of Kypchak, Bolgar, Tatar, Russian, Turkic, Arabic, Persian, as well as a variety of other Western European languages is both historically and synchronically evident. The majority of Bashkirs are Sunni Muslims.
Bashkir is an Altaic language. It belongs to the Western Uralic group of the Turkic subfamily. Within Western Uralic, it is categorized as a language of the Kypchak-Bolgar subgroup.
The three regional dialects of Bashkir are known to differ minimally with respect to their grammatical properties. Phonology is the primary dimension along which the dialects are known to vary. Nonetheless, all dialects are mutually intelligible to both speakers of Bashkir and Tatar. Additional information regarding language variation among Bashkir dialects is not readily available.
At present, Cyrillic is the official orthography of Bashkir. The first written form of the language was based upon Runic. Soon after the introduction of Islam in the tenth century, the Arabic script came into use. In the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, what is currently regarded as the traditional form of the written language based on old Ural/Central Asian Turkic came to existence. In subsequent years, the Arabic writing system of the Tatar literary language was adopted. An Arabic script was used until 1928, when a Latin-based writing system was implemented. In 1940, under Stalin’s order, a slightly modified Cyrillic orthography was installed and remains today.
The linguistic character of Bashkir has been considerably shaped by both genetic and areally related languages as well as languages it has come into contact with over its history (see History below). This is most evident in its lexicon. More than two thirds of the Bashkir vocabulary consists of Turkic loan words. The bulk of the remainder of the Bashkir lexicon is comprised of borrowings from Arabic, Persian, and other West European languages such as Russian. This, however, is not to say that 100% of its vocabulary is borrowed. Nonetheless, the percentage of its lexicon that is native is rather small.
Bashkir, as is the case with most Altaic languages, is an agglutinative SOV language with a rich inflectional system. All affixation in the language is suffixal; prefixation does not occur. Grammatical agreement is prevalent and is encoded in the various endings or suffixes a given form takes. For instance, verbs agree with their subjects in terms of person and number marking. Agreement relations hold between a number of other expressions in a variety of constructions as well. As is often the case with SOV languages (Greenberg 1963), Bashkir makes use of postpositions exclusively. A number of other phrases appear to be head-final in the language as well. This is most easily observed in verb phrases in the language. In Bashkir, objects/complements precede the verb (i.e. the head of the verb phrase). This gives the overall impression that Bashkir is a head-final language, that is, a language in which heads appear finally in their phrases.
The phonology of Bashkir is characterized by a substantial vowel inventory consisting of nine primary vowels plus two vowels that only occur in loans. Its consonant inventory is built from twenty-eight phonemes, some of which also occur exclusively in borrowings. A characteristic of all vowel phonemes in the language is that they are pronounced with a non-phonemic glottal stop in word-initial position. All mid vowels in the language are reduced; there is no opposition of reduced vs. fully articulated vowels in Bashkir. The syllable structure of Bashkir is: (C)V(C)(C) [‘C’ abbreviates ‘consonant’, ‘V’ abbreviates vowel, and symbols in parentheses reflect the optionality of the item’s phonetic realization]. Thus, open and closed syllables are both possible and consonant clusters are permitted only in coda (syllable-final) position. Although consonant clusters are permitted, vowel-vowel sequences are prohibited.
Bashkir is a stress language. Stress is non-phonemic and falls on the final syllable of the word. Stress patterns of borrowed words do not conform to this stress-placement schema. Rather, the stress assignment on loan words is simply borrowed rather than computed or assimilated into the pattern of native stress in the language. One final salient phonological property of Bashkir concerns vowel harmony. All vowels in a given native word agree with respect to the feature [backness]. That is, in a given word all vowels will either surface as front or back vowels, with no mixed combination thereof. This is often referred to in the literature as palatal harmony. Palatal harmony is conditioned by the vowel of the first syllable, counting from the left edge of the word. Thus, suffixes and subsequent syllables will harmonize with the vowel of the first syllable of a word.
ROLE IN SOCIETY
Roughly 67-73% of its two million speakers claim Bashkir as their first language. The remainder claim Russian and Tatar as their mother language. Although close to two million speakers populate the republic of Bashkortostan, the Bashkirs are only the third largest nationality in the region, behind the Russians and the Tatars. Despite this demographic, the Bashkir language, together with Russian, received the status of official state language of the republic of Bashkortostan in 1999. Along with this status, measures were taken to provide for the development of the social functions of Bashkir. The Modern Bashkir Linguistics Association was created expressly for this purpose. Along with Russian, Bashkir is the language of instruction and mass media in the republic of Bashkortostan.
The Bashkir are thought to have roots in both Finno-Ugric and Turkic tribes. By the ninth century, they were recognized as a distinct people and settled in the area between the Volga, Kama, Tobol, and Ural rivers, where they remain today. By this time, they had adopted the Bolgar language. In the thirteenth century, the Bashkir were conquered by the Mongols and were subsequently absorbed by various sects of the Golden Horde. Because the Kypchak language was spoken by the majority of the Golden Horde tribes, it became the language of the Bashkirs in this state of Mongol absorption. After the breakup of the Golden Horde and since the sixteenth century, the Bashkir had been under Russian rule. In this capacity, modern Bashkir began to take shape. For two centuries prior to 1917, the Bashkirs (along with various other ethnic groups) had participated in the many uprisings against the Russian Empire. After the revolutions of 1917, a strong Bashkir nationalist and Muslim movement developed, leading to civil war. In February 1919, the Bashkir republic was granted autonomy. It was the first autonomous republic within the Russian republic.
Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Editor). 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth Edition. Dallas: SIL International.
Greenberg, Joseph. 1963. Universals of Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Poppe, Nicholas N. 1964. Bashkir Manual. Bloomington: Indiana University Publications.
Sunday, November 29, 2009
This concourse is a second living room for me. I'm here as much as I can be, with accordion in hand. It's certainly one of the most civilized spots in San Francisco. Verdi is here, along with Beethoven, Thomas Starr King, Goethe, Schiller and Francis Scott Key, to name a few.
Friday, November 27, 2009
Saturday, Nov. 10, 2001.
Muslims Enroll at Kazan Madrassa
By Amy Waldman
NEW YORK TIMES SERVICE KAZAN, Central Russia -- Summoned by a
familiar, plaintive call, young men dazed from studying stumble from
their dorm rooms with slippers on their feet and prayer on their
From 20 Russian regions and bordering nations, they have made their
way to an institution whose very name was unthinkable a decade ago:
the Russian Islamic University. Founded in 1998, the university
already has 148 students in its newly refurbished building.
Though most of the country's 13 million to 20 million Muslims are
secularized, young people are becoming ever more observant.
And now there are ever more places to observe: In Tatarstan, where
there were about 18 mosques under Soviet rule, there are now more than
1,000, including one rising, on a grand scale, inside the walls of
this city's kremlin.
But the state reaction to Islam seems to depend very much on what form
of Islam it is.
Less than 300 kilometers from the Russian Islamic University, another
Islamic religious institution, the Yoldyz madrassa, feels itself to be
under state siege. Set in the bleak Soviet industrial city of
Naberezhniye Chelny, surrounded by drab, gray apartment blocks, the
school's run-down building has a front door that doesn't latch and
peeling paint inside.
After reports emerged of graduates going to fight against federal
troops in Chechnya, the Tatarstan government sent the school's Arab
teachers back to their home countries and revoked its license to
provide religious education. To seem less threatening, Yoldyz
transformed itself into a girls' madrassa. Still no license. The state
wants the school closed.
The madrassa reflects a younger generation's view that Russian Islam,
shaped by accommodation to tsarist rule and Soviet repression, is not
worth preserving. The school's director, Malik Ibragimov, 36, who
studied in Saudi Arabia for four years, says fundamentalist Islam is
the only Islam. He calls the notion of a Russian Islam "rubbish.''
The university, by contrast, reflects an effort to contain radical
Islam by promoting Russian Islam -- defined as a centuries-old
tradition of coexistence with other faiths and deference to the state.
Islamic revivalism may pose no immediate threat to the Russian
federation, but it does present a challenge to President Vladimir
Putin and his successors. In seven republics of Russia, including
Chechnya and, just barely, Tatarstan, Muslims are already a majority.
They are not immigrants whose visas can be revoked. Their history here
extends back more than a millennium.
Young Muslims are picking up where their grandparents left off when
communists executed thousands of Islamic teachers and closed most of
the country's mosques and religious schools. Unable to look to parents
raised under Soviet rule for instruction on anything but the most
basic rituals, some of today's young people are being influenced by
young preachers and teachers who went to Arab countries to study
starting in the 1980s.
Their education abroad, coupled with an influx of Arab emissaries
offering spiritual guidance and financial support after the Soviet
collapse, helped forge a generation of ardent believers.
"They began to feel 10 years ago that they are a minority among
Russians, but they belong to the Islamic civilization and feel that
Osama bin Laden and others are their brothers,'' said Alexei
Malashenko, a scholar of Islam at the Moscow Carnegie Center.
Fearful that young radicals could help fill the rapidly growing need
for Islamic teachers, conservative Muslim leaders have encouraged
Putin to pay more attention to Islamic education in Russia. So has
Tatarstan's president, Mintimer Shaimiyev.
Ever attentive to his Muslim constituents, he has formed strong
economic relations with Arab and Muslim countries. But when it comes
to religious education, and even his prized Islamic university,
Shaimiyev no longer wants Islamic countries' help.
"We think it's better to render that support ourselves,'' he said in
A few years ago, concerned that Arab teachers were spreading
Wahhabism, Shaimiyev engineered the election of a moderate, Gusman
Iskhakov, to head Tatarstan's Muslim Spiritual Board. Iskhakov, who is
also rector of the Islamic university, quickly took religious schools
Those who advocate an Islamic state in Russia, or preach intolerance
for other faiths, he said, threaten to disrupt the harmony between
Muslims and Christians that has held for centuries in Tatarstan.
"The ideas proclaimed in Saudi Arabia don't fit here,'' he said.
But Ibragimov of the Yoldyz madrassa hardly seems hopeful that his
fellow Tatars, who he said prefer drinking to scripture, are ready for
Islamic rule. Rather, he believes that the state fears that observant
Muslims will start applying Islamic notions of justice to the
corruption they see around them.
A drawing on a wall shows an unhealthy heart infected by the trappings
of Western success -- a car, a cellphone, a bag of money.
drug addicts, no theft, no alcoholism, no killings like in Russia, and
if they call that Wahhabism, then I am for Wahhabism like that.''
(8 years ago)
Islam arrived in the Volga-Ural region a little over a thousand years ago. The Bulgars of Chan Almas had officially accepted Islam on 16 Muharram 310 (16 May 922). Approximately 70 years before the Russians adopted Christianity as their official religion, Islam had been recognized as the state religion by the then Turkic Bulgar state. The Tatars and Bashkirs, the Muslim people of the Volga-Ural region, were the first to fall under Russian domination 433 years ago [1552 C.E.] and were heavily suppressed by the Orthodox Russians. Mosques were destroyed or converted into Orthodox churches, and the Russian Orthodox church forcibly baptized Muslims. In the year 1756, eighty percent of all mosques in the province (gubirna) of Kazan were destroyed.
After Catherine II's reforms in 1780, the Muslims began reproducing mainly religious literature and distributing it among the population. During the first year of the Bolshevik revolution (1917), the Soviet government promised the Muslim workers freedom of religion and practice of their manners and customs without restrictions. However, after gaining power, the Soviet government broke all promises - religious leaders were persecuted, religious institutions were closed, religious education was not permitted. This was followed by anti-religious propaganda by the "Union of Militant Atheists." During World War II, the Soviet government revised its policy of persecution against religion and Islam. But after the war in 1953 Chrushvhov continued with administrative and psychological attacks under the motto "back to Lenin."
The Muslim population of the Soviet Union is between 45 and 50 million, making it the sixth largest in the world (1980 data). The majority of the Soviet Muslims are of Turkic ethnic origin. They live in the Volga-Ural region, Northern Caucasus, Central Asia and other parts of the Soviet Union. There are approximately 6.5 million Tartar and Bashkir Muslims in the Volga-Ural region. I... (more)
Thursday, November 26, 2009
Monday, November 23, 2009
These talented musicians were in town this week for a tour of North America. They performed at Zellerbach auditorium at the UC Berkeley campus: Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff and Kazakh traditional music. The music of our Kazakh cousins sounds nothing like Tatar music, but the language is structurally related to the Tatar language.
Sunday, November 22, 2009
Saturday, November 21, 2009
Friday, November 20, 2009
Here you go:
Аять – Коръән сүрәсендәге җөмләләр, сүрәнең бүленеш берәмлеге.
Бәйтүл Кудс – изге йорт; Иерусалим.
Бәни ислам – ислам балалары, мөселманнар.
Кәгъбә - Мәккә шәһәрендәге гыйбадәтханә, аллаһ йорты.
Куфи, нәстәгълыйк, нәсх, рөкъгә, сөлес, тәгълыйк – гарәп язуы төрләре.
Ләүхә - 1.Такта, белдерүләр тактасы. Ишеккә язып асыла торган такта. 2. Сәнгать әсәре.
Тугра – гарәп каллиграфиясе нигезендә эшләнгән монограмма.
Шәҗәрә - 1.Агач, куак. 2. Нәсел-ыругның тамырларын күрсәтүче схема. Нәсел агачы.
Сүрә - Коръәндәге бүлекләр (баблар).
Хәрәкә - гарәп язуындагы хәрефләр өстенә һәм астына куела торган билгеләр.
Коръән хафиз – Коръәнне яттан белүче.
Җәдваль – таблица, исемлек; тармак.
Ләүхел мәхфуз – Адәм баласының дөньяда эшләгән барлык эшләре дә теркәлә (һәм саклана) торган такта.
Кыйбла – намаз вакытында мөселманнар йөзләрен юнәлтә торган тараф.
Йасин, ясин – Коръәннең 36 нчы сүрәсе.
Җәбраил - Җәбраил фәрештә. Аллаһ белән Пәйгамбәр арасындагы арадашчы, барлык пәйгамбәрләрнең остазы.
Шәһадәт – 1.Таныклык бирү, күрсәтү. 2.Аттестат, диплом. 3.Шәһит булу, үтерелү. 4.Куркынычлык янаганда, “Лә илаһе илләллаһи уә Мөхәммәдүр-рәсүлүллаһ” – Аллаһыдан башка бөек көч иясе юк һәм Мөхәммәт - Аллаһының илчесе дип таныклык бирү.
Шәмаил – 1. Тумыштан булган сыйфат, холык, яхшы холык. 2.Рам эченә куелган дини эчтәлектәге текст яисә изге урыннарның рәсеме.
Хәдисе шәриф – бөек, олуг сүзләр ( Мөхәммәт пәйгамбәрнең сөйләгәннәре һәм эшләгән эшләре турында).
Тәһлил – “Лә илаһе илләл лаһ” сүзләрен күп тапкырлар кабатлап әйтү.
Сәрләүхә - китапның титул бите. Мәкалә исеме. Эпиграф.
Нәккаш – төрле бизәкләр төшерүче, рәсемче, гравер.
Әбҗәд – туры мәгънәсендә “әлифба” дигән сүз. Борынгы яһүди әлифбасындагы хәрефләрнең тәртибен күрсәткән һәм бер мәгънәне дә аңлатмый торган сүзләр тезмәсе.
Бөти – төркичә “язу” дигән сүз. Төрки халыкларда “бөти” сүзенең төрле формалары – Битик (язу, хат), битмәк (язмак), бителде (язылды), битикче (язучы, кятиб), диван битикчесе (суд секретаре), олы битикче (беренче секрктарь) – кулланылышта йөргән. Аннан бу сүз җанлы телдән төшә, “бөти” дигән формасы гына кала, анысы да янга тага торган догалык кәгазе (амулет) төшенчәсен алып китә.
Догалык – ятлау, янга бөти итеп тагу яки башка максатлар өчен Коръән сүзләреннән яки башка дини китаплардан, дини риваятьләрдән алып төзелгән язма теләк теләү, Аллага ялвару текстлары.
Коръән – ислам диненең баш китабы. “Кәлям шәриф” (“Изге сүзләр китабы”) дип тә йөртелә. Барысы 114 сүрәдән тора. Сүрәләр Мөхәммәт пәйгамбәргә Алла тарафыннан иңдерелгән сүзләр – аятьләр төсендә, махсус шигъри формада бирелгәннәр.
Хаттатлар – матур язу осталары, каллиграфлар. Язу культурасына борыннан ия халыкларда (кытай, гарәп, фарсы, рус, Көнбатыш милләтләрдә) ничек булса, бездә, Идел-Чулман буе татарларында да, китап басу һөнәре барлыкка килгәнче кулдан күчерелгән язма китаплар гамәлдә йөргән. Китап күчерү эше белән шөгыльләнүчеләрне хаттатлар дип йөрткәннәр.
Аллаһы – (гарәпчә - илаһи зат, тәңре, ходай) – ислам дине буенча, күкне, җирне, кешене – бөтен нәрсәне бар итүче, бөтен дөнья белән идарә итүче.
Иман – исламның хаклыгына ихлас ышану.
Кәгъбә - Мәккәдәге әл – Хәрәм мәчете уртасында урнашкан куб формасындагы изге таш бина.
Мәккә - мөселманнарның Көнбатыш Гарәбстанда урнашкан төп шәһәре, аның ядкарьлек җире.
Мәдинә - мөселманнарның икенче изге шәһәре, анда Мөхәммәт пәйгамбәр күмелгән.
Хаҗ – мөселманнарның Мәккә шәһәрендәге Кәгъбәгә барып гыйбадәт кылулуры.
Хаҗи – Мәккәгә барып, хаҗ кылган мөселман.
Хәдис – Мөхәммәт пәйгамбәрнең тормышы, эшчәнлеге, күрсәтмәләре, кылган гамәлләре, васыятьләре хакындагы риваятьләрдән торган изге чыганак һ.б.
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Tuesday, November 17, 2009
Monday, November 16, 2009
Friday, November 13, 2009
October 11, 2009
Iskender, Nadia, Turan, Rukiye, Umit, Anita, Dilare, Nazlygul, Diana, Sofia, and Talia
Cupertino, California is in the "Silicon Valley" and has a massive, well-educated workforce that's musically sophisticated and supportive of numerous low-wattage local radio stations and excellent international programming.
Tuesday, November 10, 2009
Monday, November 9, 2009
Sunday, November 8, 2009
Friday, November 6, 2009
Wednesday, November 4, 2009
Tuesday, November 3, 2009
All in djvu format. Download the djvu Viewer app and behold the majesty.
Some books (only a few) are from a Russian file sharing server. (We didn't check those out)
We're looking forward to more and now have more reading to do than we could ever imagine, or hope for..... Wow, and it's all really good!
I love this picture dictionary. I just received it and it's bound to be a favorite. There are pages covering the animal and plant world, kitchen, farm and just about everywhere else.
Format is as above:
Sunday, November 1, 2009
The Кол Шәриф (Kol Shärif ) mosque located in Kazan Kremlin is the largest mosque in Russia and, reputedly, in Europe.
Originally, the mosque was built in Kazan Kremlin in the 16th century. It was named after Кол Шәриф (Kol Shärif ) who served there. Кол Шәриф (Kol Shärif )died with his numerous students while defending Kazan from Russian forces in 1552. It is believed that the building featured minarets, both in the form of cupolas and tents. Its design was traditional for Volga Bulgaria, although elements of early Renaissance and Ottoman architecture could have been used as well. In 1552, during the storm of Kazan it was destroyed by Ivan The Terrible.
Tatar scholars speculate as to whether some elements of Кол Шәриф (Kol Shärif ) mosque can be seen in Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow (8 minarets, a central cupola, not typical for Russian architecture). Since 1996 the mosque has been rebuilt in Kazan Kremlin, although its look is decisively modern. Its inauguration on July 24, 2005 marked the beginning of celebrations dedicated to the Millennium of Kazan.
Several countries contributed to the fund that was set up to build Кол Шәриф (Kol Shärif ) mosque. Namely, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates. Кол Шәриф (Kol Shärif ) is considered to be one of the most important symbols of Tatar aspiration to independence and liberty. Nowadays the mosque predominantly serves as Museum of Islam. At the same time during the major Muslim celebrations thousands of people gather there to pray.
The Кол Шәриф (Kol Shärif ) complex was envisioned to be an important cornerstone of Kazan architectural landscape. Besides the main mosque building it includes the library, publishing house and Imam's office.