Monday, June 21, 2010

Tatars in Shanghai and elsewhere in China



Larissa Chernikov

On the pages “Shanghai dawn”

During the scientific practice period in C.P.R. (Chinese Peoples' Republic) (g. Shanghai) to me it had luck to find materials and periodicals of Russian emigrants, who fell into this huge Chinese city after Civil War.

Russian white emigration - unique phenomenon not only in the domestic, but also in the world history. In 20-30- e years it was the serious political force, which has influential authority in the anti-Bolshevik camp of Russian [zarubezhya].

The history of the origin of [tyurko]- Moslem community in Shanghai (descendants from the former Russian Empire) is interesting and dramatic. Basic contingent of people, which fell on the Chinese Far East after the events of 1917-1920, the educated national intelligentsia, servicemen, cossacks, the well-off layers of Bashkir- Tatar society, clergy. Specifically, this part of active participants in the revolutionary events and the Civil War temporarily proved to be on “the backyards” of emigration, if we examine its geographical arrangement.

The terms of the Turko-Tatar community, which existed in Shanghai from the middle 1920- X prior to the middle 1940- X of years, arrive in China by different ways. One part is past the way of [kolchakovskoy] army, Siberia and at the end 1922 together with the remainders of white guard divisions forced was to emigrate from Vladivostok to Korea, Japan and China. Another part proved to be in the Chinese republic after the crushing defeat of [basmacheskogo] motion in Turkestan, [pereydya] boundary in the region of Chinese Xinjiang- uigur autonomous region. Late these separate formings and refugees one by one reached the regions of Harbin, tientsin, Shanghai, where they could be combined into the nation- religious communities.

Then they according to tradition called them [tyurko]- Tatars, and this name, until now, is used in the foreign Anglo-American historiography. Among the [tyurko]- Tatars there were the descendants from the Volga Region, Urals, Orenburg, Kazan', Ufa provinces - Bashkirs, Tatars, [mishari], other Moslem national character.

At the end 1922 g. the remainders of [kolchakovskikh] armies and seaside parts of the white army (among which were located the parts of the Tatar- Bashkir the troops), after shipping to 30 warships more than 9 thousand people of citizen and servicemen, they swam off from Vladivostok in search of the best portion. After several stoppages in the intermediate ports the part of the ships reached Shanghai.

However, Shanghai accepted the unexpected newcomers very inhospitable. To the head to authorities fell down the heap of people; moreover ships were in full combat readiness and in the holds it was full weapon and ammunition. The authorities of Shanghai refused to commanding of flotilla General [Glebov] in the right to the debarkation not only of military contingent, but also peaceful, citizen. To ships it was specified leave Shanghai port 24 hours.

But the tormented, despairing themselves refugees could not move further. Russian ships with the refugees (among which there were many women and children) stood on the Shanghai raid 3 years; people lived aboard the ships, experiencing deprivations and diseases. Died in this time the several people, without having maintained the terrifying conditions of ship life.

No one in Shanghai intended to contain these people - and aboard the ships gradually concluded with fuel-, foodstuffs and drinking water. Only because of courage and resoluteness of General [F]. [L]. [Glebov], who knew how to secretly sell weapon and several ships, refugees could obtain entire necessary. Furthermore, the charitable institutions of international Shanghai also rendered assistance. Subsequently Russian emigrants by small parties could (and legally, and illegal) leave ships and settle in the city.

At that time China was semi-colony. Shanghai was, for example, divided on 3 parts - being been self-governing Chinese city, international settlement and to the French concession. All three parts were governed by their own municipal authorities, therefore, if arose the questions of townspeople nature, the authority of all three parts of the city they sat down themselves for the negotiating table. Major portion of the refugees from Russia vein in the territory of French concession (part of Shanghai, which is been located under the rule of the French colonial troops), but there were those, who was forced in view of their disastrous material position to settle in the Chinese city.

Large mosque was located in the outskirts of Chinese city, descendants from the Moslem countries there compact settled. Refugees on the labor market could not compete with the Chinese. Chinese could work for the basin of rice, for several coppers. Emigrants, for the most part people of those formed and those many that are seen, this payment labor did not arrange. They proved to be uncalled-for. They could not be occupied by hard physical labor, and their knowledge and experience was necessary no one. Hope for charitable institutions, to the aid of foreign companies, to the chance remained to obtain work in rich Chinese. Russian refugees obtained more than Chinese, but it is less than foreigners with the same qualification.

Sick, lonely old men wandered along the streets of Shanghai in search of the subsistence. Sometimes in the newspapers these communications appeared:

“It left and did not return. On March 3 left from his apartment to [Veysayd] of Lee 375- The member of the community of the [Tyurko]- Tatars of Shanghai [Abdullyans] Of [yavgildin], which did not return, until now. The searches, undertaken by community, proved to be [bezrezultativnymi]. The community of [Tyurko]- Tatars is turned to those, who have any information about [A]. [Yavgildin]'s fate, to report into the office of the administration of community on Ruth Walloon, 517, or to the treasurer of administration [M]. [Khaliullin], by Ruth Walloon, 516. [A]. [Yavgildin] already old man, to it 60 years”.

Moslem colony in Shanghai, or as it called Moslems themselves “Nation- spiritual community of the [Tyurko]- Tatars of Shanghai city” was formed in 1923. Specifically, in this year took place the first general meeting, at which were present about 15-20 people. At this meeting by the first chairman of the administration of community was unanimously selected [I]. [Sh]. [Akberdin]. He remained the leader of community up to his departure in the USA in 1931.

Community rendered aid the indigent [tyurko]- Tatars arrived in Shanghai, and also all facts, who fell into the state of end need. It bustled about the delivery to these people of passports, it arranged them to the service, supplied with coupons to the free dinners, arranged to the apartments, for which itself paid. Since the members of Moslem community were people [malosostoyatelnymi], then initial membership payment was established in all in the size of 25 cents per month.

After being based and after being strengthened, refugees from Russia began to publish their newspapers. Newspaper “Shanghai Zarya” wrote: “Our small newspaper islet we created from the grains of the glorious past, lit up by the flame, with great care carried through the infinite steppes of Volga Region, the terrible mountain ridges of the Urals, through the immense tundras of cold Siberia and the wild knolls of Transbaykal. And it is dear to us therefore as our suffering as the handful of the native earth for the neglected into the distant countries pilgrim. To us it was not easy to work here! :., stunned by crash Civil Wars strange, without the money and by the clank of cast iron wheels on the infinite as eternity, rails of great way, we burn into this strange at first for us and mysterious edge, in which everything was new, it is incomprehensible and it is uncommon… No one thought at first that this wonderful edge will become our second native land, that for us it is necessary here to live and to work the entire decade…”.

Not it is past and several years, as the Russian enterprises (so were called enterprises, based by descendants from the former Russian Empire independent of of nationality) they appeared on the French concession of Shanghai. Toward the end 1920- X of years on the avenue Joffre (where in essence settled Russians) and on the adjacent with it streets there were the continuously Russian bakeries, the stores, barbershop, restaurants… Were there and the stores of fashionable clothing, the most known - “smoked sturgeon Grigoryev”, libraries, schools. In the Chinese conservatory in majority their Russian (read - Russian) musicians and instructors worked. In a word, the life of Russian-language colony somehow was fixed. Enterprising people flourished; it was badly the fact, who was lost and could not find itself in this alien life…

The little by little Turko-Tatar community of beginning grow, and at the same time grew the demands of people. In the course of time was opened the school, in which the children could study native language and bases of the Moslem of religion. All the remaining objects the children of Moslems as the children of other Russian emigrants, passed to foreign schools.

When Moslem young people began to arrive from Manchuria, Vladivostok and other places, cultural-educational circle was created with the community and library was acquired. In the newspaper “Shanghai Zarya” there was placed following declaration:


During the day of the 22-[oy] anniversary of the untimely decease of national Turko-Tatar poet [G]. [Tukaya], on April 19, in the placement of Ukrainian huge thing in 7 h. of meetings. The session, at which will be read the autobiography [G]. [Tukaya], is arranged by the literary and artistic circle of [Tyurko]- Tatars, his life and the students of Turko-Tatar courses count its works.

The debt of all [tyurko]- Tatars to honor the memory of national poet, since many in the time of emigration forgot not only the works of its poets and writers, but also about the more crucial points of their life.

Literary and artistic circle requests all, who value their national heroes, to memorize the 19-[oe] number”.

Circle arranged also “the cup of tea”. So in Shanghai in the emigrant medium were called the charitable concert- balls, organized in favor of students or invalids. Here is the typical declaration of that time:

“The cup of tea in Tatars. The cultural-educational circle of the Turko-Tatar colony of Shanghai together with the parental committee of Tatar school, arranges the cup of tea on Saturday December 28 in the placement of Ukrainian charitable committee in 8 h. of evening. This evening promises to be interesting, since are prepared the diverse appearances, which will be completed by students. Invite all Tatars of Shanghai”.

In April 1935 colony conducted mourning sessions and reports, dedicated to the anniversary of Turkish- Tatar poet [Gabdully]'s death [Tukaya], and also to the memory Of [yusufa] Of [akchury], [Mazhita] Of [gafuri], Azerbaijan enlightener of Galya [Mardan] [Tubchibasha]. In the Russian-language Shanghai newspapers “word” and “Shanghai Zarya” from time to time appear the articles and notes about the life of Turko-Tatar colony. For example, note about Galya [Mardane] [Tubchibashe] wrote certain [Kadir]. In all probability, this is well-known among the Turkish- Tatar diaspore orientalist, enlightener teacher [Zakir] [Kadyri], that lived and worked in Harbin and Shanghai.

In 1935 community counted about 120 people. If one takes into account, that could be the members of community only men, then taking into account families (on the average each family - 4 people) it is possible to assert that the total number of Tatar- Bashkir colony in Shanghai composed 400-450 people. In all Russian (Russian) colony in Shanghai in the different years counted from 20 to 50 thousand people. This spread explains by the fact that Shanghai, in the essence, became the terminal for the refugees of the Russian origin, which moved into Shanghai, in order to leave to search for happinesses into the distant countries…

In 1935. in “by Shanghai Zarya” in the note the life of Tatar- Bashkir community was discussed:

“Our colony, although small it is numerical, then strong. As to one of the facts of the work of community it is possible to indicate that they buried the previously died kinsmen on the different cemeteries, together with [inakoveruyushchimi], but after energetic troubles for community it was possible to agree with the Hindu Moslems and to obtain the possibility to bury the members of colony on the Mohammedan cemetery on the avenue Joffre”.

And one additional communication:

“[Kh]. [Valiakhmetov]'s death. On the night on March 7 in the municipal insulating hospital it passed away after the prolonged disease Of [khaydar] Of [valiakhmetov]. Deceased was Veteran of the Civil War, completed great Siberian march, and in the emigration already it consisted of the numbers Of the [shandunskaya] army. [Kh]. [Valiakhmetov] - native Of the [samarskaya] province Of [bugulminskogo] district. The local community of the [tyurko]- Tatars of China cared about the burials of deceased, after burying its on March 8 to its means. On the burials were present the secretary of the administration of community [R]. [Kh]. Fatkullin, the members of administration [M]. [Khaliullin] and other members of community and the friends of deceased”.

“We by all forces fight, stated editorial staff “by Zarya's Shanghai” the member of Turko-Tatar community, so that no one of our colony would fall into the misfortune, and it would not begin to beg. In this respect we take all possible measures, which, as the inhabitants of city see, are completely radical, since not one poor Tatar on the streets of Shanghai cannot be found. However, with the rendering the least aid our Tatars try to be selected again to the correct way. As to an example one lame Tatar, who appeared at us so that we would render any assistance it, since it strongly requires. We proposed to it to begin trade in newspapers, since this to him as legless, it is more accessible. They gave two dollars to it, and it left, and in two months it returned to community two dollars and still made small donation, after saying that it now began to earn to itself to the life and it is completely sufficient to it. This Tatar, who trades in newspapers on the avenue Joffre, Shanghai knows entire. Many at its place you saw through money and they would begin again to request.

To other indigent Tatars, who desire to deal on the villages peddle, we give guarantees and obtain goods on credit. The linguistic abilities of the members of our colony and preventive- polite relation to the peasant- buyers [for Chinese - l. h.] it creates in them permanent clientele and gives the possibility to exist”.

The literary and artistic circle of [tyurko]- Tatars, created in 1930, played large role in the rallying of community. The reports usually read out themselves at the sessions of circle and were conducted the discussions, and also the evenings, dedicated to the outstanding representatives of national intelligentsia - to poets, to writers, scientists. On the pages “of the Shanghai of Zarya” fairly often are placed the notes of this content:

“The evening Of [yusufa] Of [akchura]. Tomorrow in the accomodation of Ukrainian huge thing, 450 To [taku] kind, by the literary and artistic circle of [tyurko]- Tatars is arranged the commemoration meeting Of [yusufa] Of [akchura].

The terms of circle hope that the Turko-Tatar colony will consider as its responsibility to visit this evening in order to return the tribute of the respect for the memory of deceased”.

The leader (chairman) of circle [K]. [Akhmedi] carried out diverse social activities, acquainting the members of community with the history of the life of [tyurko]- Tatars, Azerbaijanians and Caucasians in the last 50 years. Peru To [k]. [Akhmedi] belonged several plays, narratives, he frequently wrote in the newspapers about the workers of Turko-Tatar culture. For example, with the preparation of the commemoration meeting Of [yusufa] Of [akchura] it places the small note in the Russian-language Shanghai newspaper:


Last information from Europe brought sad for the [tyurko]- Tatars news about death Of [yusufa] Of [akchura], which followed on April 11 of this year in Istanbul.

Men the thoroughly educated, highly-cultured public figure, [Yusuf] Of [akchura] were during many decades the connecting link between the southern and northeastern Turko-Tatar peoples.

Being the native Of the [simbirskoy] of lips., has long ago it emigrated to Turkey and to the last moment of veins there, occupying the department of philology at the Istanbul university. At one time he was also professor on turkology in [Sorbonne].

In Istanbul for many years he was the publisher of the journal “Turk -[Yurdy]”, who in tens of thousands of copies was extended throughout the entire territory, occupied by Turkish peoples.

Deceased was the furious defender of the rights of Turkish peoples and was in the final analysis convinced of the confluence of them together.

Death of important national champion, entire their life of that dedicated to the complete association of all Turko-Tatar national character are undoubtedly very perceptible loss for the [tyurko]- Tatars. K. [AKHMEDI]”.

Yearly literary and artistic circle conducted 13-15 sessions (approximately 1-2 per month), reporting before the terms of community at the annual current meeting. With the circle acted the theatrical- artistic section, whose members achieved theatrical productions, they wrote plays, fulfilled choral works.

Heavy life in the emigration, far from the customary abutments and the national traditions forced to be turned to its roots, to the nation- religious holidays. Thus, for instance: “On March 16 [tyurko]- Tatars celebrated their national religious holiday “Of [gaid]-[Kurban]”, reported “Shanghai Zarya”. - Cultural-educational society, after using presence in Shanghai… [known Tatar - l. h.] of artists… arranged… play with the singing and the dances. The unconstrained atmosphere made possible to gaily conduct the evening on Wednesday of compatriot- Tatars”.

In March 1935 in the honor of the most active and most talented participants (artists) in the literary and artistic circle Of [klyauli] and [Arslanbeka] [so in the Russian editorial staff “of the Shanghai of Zarya” - l. h.], which drive off into another region, was arranged the farewell embankment- ball of Turko-Tatar community. “Shanghai Zarya” reported about this: “… The driving off artists and the members of society “the [Idel]- Urals” [Klyauli] and [Arslanbek]… in 2 years of a stay in Shanghai always worked on the benefit of society. In spite of moderate-means material position, they found time to lead mansions, scene, to write plays, to conduct their setting itself in them to participate… In the sign of the gratitude of the cultural-educational society of the [tyurko]- Tatars g. of Shanghai silver medals with the inscription were presented driving off. Those driving off, touched by numerous greeting- wishes, certified their compatriots, that they will continue the cultural matter, wherever they not were located…

Embankment was opened by the salutatory word of the chairman of society [Sh]. [Akhmadi], whom the merits of those driving off and expressed regret that such necessary for the society people leave them, but at the same time it is glad, that they will go into the more numerous Tatar colony, where more than benefit will bring… More than 40 people were present on the embankment. During the embankment were given exceptionally national Tatar dishes…”.

the Tatar- Bashkir colony g. of Shanghai consisted of people of different social groups, by the will of the historical circumstances of political events of first quarter OF [KHKH] of century pulled out from the customary circle of their life and [vvergnutykh] into the whirlpool. The educated Turko-Tatar intelligentsia played the most active role in the community: the political figures of national liberation motion, teacher, doctors, clergy… Big enough role played servicemen - participants in the first world and Civil Wars. At first they had an application in the armies of Chinese militarists, who quarrelled between themselves (actually in China that time it went Civil War). Subsequently these people served as bodyguards ([bodigardami]) in rich Chinese and as guards ([vochmanami]) of Chinese and foreign companies, and they also became the employees of Shanghai [volonterskogo] municipal housing.

Under the difficult conditions for emigration the people enterprising, initiative-taking, which carry out trade and enterprise rapidly found themselves. There were among the [tyurko]- Tatars doctors, who conquered the popularity of entire Russian colony. However, the indigent layer of refugees, deprived of any means, composed the large part of the community. Specifically, these people became the initiators of the creation of the Turko-Tatar community, planned as the community of aid.

In the course of time in the community appeared audition comission, treasurer, different sections, including religious- spiritual, playing in the life of Moslems significant role.

In July 1934. the re-elections of administration took place at the annual general meeting of the nation- spiritual community of [tyurko]- Tatars. By the chairman of community was unanimously selected [S]. [Dyuzeev], that fulfill the post of mullah - [A]. [Zamaletdinov]. The meeting of Turko-Tatar colony took place in the accomodation of Cossack house under [A]. [Ilyasov]'s chairmanship.

The community of [tyurko]- Tatars was not locked on the problems of local scale. Sharply disturbed his questions of [obshchemusulmanskogo] association in the Far East. The notes, which narrate about the complex life in the emigrant house, sometimes were published on the pages of Russian-language publications. We give completely one of the publications, which tells about the discords in the Moslem colony of Harbin:

“The discords, which were begun in the Moslem colony with the arrival Of [ayaz] Of [iskhaki], drew the attention of the highest leaders of the police. The chairmen of administrations of both groups were yesterday caused to the special division, where by them in the form order it was proposed to end strifes and to select new administration.

Order caused protest from the side of the adherents Of [iskhaki]. In the form the measures for the action of authority issued order to seal up the office of community, that also was executed. Then [idel]- Uralians sent telegram- complaint into the Turko-Tatar congress into mukden. Between the groups began the strifes, also, owing to the divine services on occasion of large Tatar holiday.

After long negotiations it was possible to resolve as follows a question:

- Must serve as the first that mullah, for whom will be given more than voices during the voting before the divine service. Was simultaneously returned order send in the morning to the mosque detail for observing of order and calmness.

The adherent of [idel]- Uralians, after seeing, which the supporters of his group is less, forewent the voting and gave to the section statement about permission by the first to serve it.

Meanwhile mullah [Murzenko] and the supporters of old order approached the praying. [Idel]- Uralians raised noise and cry, did not release into the mosque of their enemies and even they attempted to take out those being praying of the mosque. The police again interfered and the supporters of old administration after divine service quietly were radiated on the houses. to [Idel]- Uralians anything remained to make as to repeat the divine service, which was for them served by mullah [Khazbiullin].

After the end of divine service the representatives of administration were again caused to the department of the police. There they repeated the order of authorities about the election of new administration and it is indicated, that to its election the office of community will be sealed up”.

A question of the unity of Moslem [zemlyachestv] of the Far East disturbed public opinion extremely sharply. Russian-language publications “Shanghai Zarya”, “word”, “Zarya” frequently they write about the strifes in the Turko-Tatar communities. Here are only names some articles, dedicated to this problem: “Moslems all war in Harbin”, “division in the Turko-Tatar emigration in Japan”, “the members of Harbin Moslem community complain about their mullah” and so forth

The presence of the territorial- state borders between China, Japan and Korea “Russian Tatar emigrants” (as they were called in the emigrant medium) they were not taken into consideration. Emigrants lived “abroad” in the united Far-Eastern medium, receiving all events in the Turko-Tatar communities on the basis of the fact that this general Etna- religious space. We give the survey of events from “the Shanghai of Zarya”, completely preserving the transcription of the authors:

“Division in the Turko-Tatar emigration in Japan. From its own correspondent “of the Shanghai Zarya”.

Up to last year Turko-Tatar emigration in Japan did not leave from the framework of its religious association and did not manifest in the mass of special political tendencies, entrusting to its spiritual heads, some of which they began political work both in the plane of [obshchemusulmanskogo] motion and preaching the independence of Moslems, who live in Russia. Now position sharply changed. Colony was divided into two camps.

Tokyo Moslem community heads mullah [Kurbangaliev], who fights for the independence of Bashkirya and who cooperates in his aspirations with the Siberian separative group Of [porotikova]-[Golovacheva].

Tokyo community has its mosque, school, its head has its own house. [Kobskaya] Moslem community is headed by mullah [Shamgulov], where also there is a school. In Nagoya a comparatively small Moslem community.

Among the members of Moslem communities are many, although not sympathizing to Bolsheviks, selected Soviet [pasporty].

To two camps.

The Japanese telegraphic agency “Of [nichiro]-[Tsusin]” in the bulletin dated April 10 apropos of the division of Turko-Tatar emigration in Japan reports the following:

“The Tatar emigration, which based itself in Japan, counts in its numbers of approximately 600 people. (Number exaggerated. On [sved]. min. internal. the affairs of the [tyurko]- Tatars of Japan it is counted a little more than 300 men). In the number of [tyurko]- Tatars in Japan are the former officers the soldiers of Russian army - participants in the great and Civil Wars.

Now Turko-Tatar colony in Japan was divided into two hostile camps: one group, which was remained in the minority, is headed by mullah [Kurban]-[Galiev], and the second, recently organized and comprised of the members of Moslem societies, in the majority which passed to the side of that arrived from Berlin to Japan in the past year the representative of the Russian Moslems of Tatar pamphleteer [Ayaz] Of [iskhaki].

The reasons for division among the Moslems, who live in Japan, lie, apparently, in the fact that Chapter One of the groups indicated mullah [Kurban]-[Galiev] set as his goal the association of Moslem- emigrants exclusively on the religious soil, coordinating its actions with some Russian white emigrants, whereas that headed the second group poses before Moslem- emigrants wider problems, besides religious, purely national, preaching the independence of [tyurko]- Tatars, the natives of locality the Volga - Urals.

For the purpose of the association of [tyurko]- Tatars - the natives of locality the Volga - Urals (“the [Idel]- Urals”) and the creation of cultural-educational society in Tokyo, on February 11 in one of the accomodations of club “[Idzumibasi] To [kurabu]” in [Kaida] region in Tokyo there was convoked general meeting of Moslems, who live in the capital of Japan.

To this meeting, in spite of the expectations of organizers, appeared mullah [Kurban]-[Galiev] in the chapter of several members of Tokyo Moslem colony and in the tracking regiment. [Porotikova] and other several Russian emigrants, who refer no to the affairs of Moslems.

The arrival of mullah [Kurban]-[Galiev] and Russians caused protest among the gathering Moslems, who required from [Porotikova] and other Russians of the leaving of meeting, that it was not completed, however. The yr. Of [porotikov] and [Kurban]-[Galiev] by their speeches tore away the meeting, dissolved by police authorities and which was ended by unprecedented scandal.

On February 26 in the accomodation of restaurant “[Matsumoto]- rho” in the [Khibiya]- park took place the second meeting of Moslems, at which the regulations of the cultural society of the [tyurko]- Tatars of the [Idel]- Urals were discussed and accepted, administration and audition comission were selected.

At present newly organized society develops its activity in the contact with those joined the head of new society to Mr. [Ayaz] Of [iskhaki] by the Moslem colonies of Kobe, Nagoya, that sent its delegates in Tokyo from other cities of Japan, Korea and [Manchzhu]-Di- GO. From the Moslems, who live in Tokyo, into the composition of new society it entered about half of the full members of Moslem community in Tokyo, who left the latter.

[Ayaz] Of [iskhaki] some of its supporters, who suffered with the scandal at the meeting on February 11, assign on the responsibility of some persons, including Of [porotikova], and they instituted against them judicial proceeding through attorney Nakamura. At the present moment the attorney examines excited [Ayaz] Of [iskhaki] the matter about the insult by words and by actions, on the order of attorney the capital police produces consequence and it invited on April 30 in the chief police administration of mullah [Kurban]-[Galiev] for the dacha of indications.

Giving communication “[Nichiro]-[Tsusin]” it is possible only to regret about the occured division in the Russian Moslem colony in Japan. Is difficult anything to object against its religious and in a cultured way- national association.

However, should be especially noted the separative and anti-Russian tendencies being appeared in the Moslem colony of Japan, which in the future can lead to the unpleasant consequences and the aggravation of the relations between the radical Russian population and the [tyurko]- Tatars of Russia, whom in the mass, probably, they do not have tendencies, preached [Ayaz] Of [iskhaki], that spend time and energy on the utopian aspirations, instead of using of these efforts in the fight with the general enemy of all nationalities of Russia - Communist dictatorship.

Russian Moslems should not be forgotten that their not 30 million, as it asserts [A]. [Iskhakya], but altogether only about 14 million (8,7%), besides from this number very insignificant quantity lives in the region the Volga- Urals, besides not being been outlying, but locked intra-Russian. G. [ORGINSKIY]. Tokyo, on April 15, 1934”.

Ideological differences in the [tyurko]- emigrant medium - object of separate study. As is known, the roots of these differences arose even in the period of the creation of Tatar- Bashkir republic (1917-1920 yr.), in the motion “[Idel]- Urals”, in the contradictions between the leaders of national liberation motion (A. - Z. [Validi], [G]. [Iskhakya], [S]. [Maksudi] et al).

The well-known researcher of life and creation A. - Z. [Validi] [A]. [Yuldashbaev] writes: “… in Europe it was revealed that the old differences with some Tatar workers not only do not shade in the emigration, but acquire the new, at times unexpected forms”. The situation occurred not less dramatically in the Far East. Let us say only that the attempts to find a compromise on the emigrant congresses and the congresses did not always bring result. But a compromise between the scientist- theorists of national motion was not at all achieved. “[Z]. [Validi]'s controversy [Togana] with Sadri Of [maksudi] and [Gayazom] [Iskhaki] on a Tatar- Bashkir question, writes historian [A]. [Yuldashbaev], it continued to the end of their life and remained as the inheritance to our generation. Entire question consists in this controversy, remaining the explanation of the relations of very close peoples, being rested on the ideas of the thinkers of this scale as [Z]. [Validi] [Togan] and Sadri [Maksudi], and it damaged not on one people of Russia”.

What other well-known participants in the national motion of the Turko-Tatar emigration of the Far East - in the periodicals are mentioned [Tarukhan] Of [rasulov] and It [rashit] [Ibragimov] (members of Turko-Tatar community in Tokyo). However, the surnames of other (series) members of Tatar- Bashkir colony in Shanghai and Harbin are encountered rarely, or in connection with some events. For example, in the division “of incident” there was the information of this kind:

“That new in Harbin (from the last mail). On March 22 in 8 h. of the morning at the angle of streets… under the rushed at a high speed truck… fell trader [A]. [A]. [Agafurov], 64 years. Automobile strongly pushed [Agafurova] and that, falling on the stones of bridge, was obtained the enormous torn wound of head. After rendering to first aid by the feldsher of urban [ambulansa], the victim is delivered into the German- Russian hospital.

[Agafurov] in the past - one of the richest people in the Urals. The state Of [agafurovykh] was calculated in tens of millions of rubles. Doctors recognized its wound of serious, but for the life dangerous”.

After the beginning of the Japanese aggression in China (1937 g.) many Harbin [tyurko]- Tatars cross to Shanghai. The fact is that the authorities of marionette state [Manchzhu]-Di- GO planned the mobilization of emigrant young people into the army for dealing with the USSR. Tatar- Bashkir colony from Harbin one by one began to migrate to Shanghai, where it was possible to design for the support of tribesmen and the aid of international English-French society. However, the Japanese did not intend to reject their plans. Turko-Tatar community seriously thought about its future. Young people attempted to obtain reliable legal protection. More no one wanted to be emigrant, because each could say: “You - no one!” People wanted to become the citizens of any state and to obtain all civil liberties, which the usual inhabitants of each country had. Many fought for the passage into Turkey, the Arab countries, the USA… At the beginning World War II the large part of the Turko-Tatar community left Shanghai.

The history of Shanghai Turko-Tatar colony still requires its search examination. To many questions it is not thus far obtained answer… The final division of political emigration occurred during the Second World War. The part of the emigrants remained on the irreconcilable positions with respect to the USSR, another part decisively was dissociated from them, experiencing pain, compassion and feeling of guilt before the native land. Encouraged by the successes of the Soviet Army, by victory in the great war, this part of the emigrants stated about the desire to return home. Them they began to call [vozvrashchentsami]. The large part of [vozvrashchentsev] they waited repression, camp and reference.

Even those, who [kolebalsya] in their political selection, understood: war became the boundary, which determines their future. “Then of Shanghai many did not want to leave, recall emigrants from the USA. - But in China began Civil War, and after the taking of Nanking by the Chinese Communist troops it became clear: it is necessary to leave, there is no other output. Many, who was forced to leave for the distant countries, did not agree to recognize the authority of communist party, indeed they were brought up in the spirit of anticommunism. To risk (i.e. to remain) no one wanted”.

Of Turko-Tatar colony in Shanghai arrived end. In 1945-1947 yr. still several hundred Russian emigrants remained in Shanghai; however, these people no longer played any role in “red” China.

© “[BELSKIE] SPACES”, 2003

this is babelfished from


The Chinese Tatars (塔塔尔族 Tǎtǎěrzú) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.

Their ancestors are Volga Tatar tradesmen who settled mostly in Xinjiang.

The number of Chinese Tatars is close to 5000 as of 2000, and they live mainly in the cities of Aletai, Changji, Yili, Urumchi, Tacheng and other places in Xinjiang.

Chinese Tatars speak an archaic variant of the Tatar language, free from 20th-century loanwords and use Arabic variant of the Tatar alphabet, declined in USSR in 1930s.

from Wikipedia


Tatar Nationality

The Tatar ethnic group in China has a population of 4,890, most of whom live in the towns of Yining, Tacheng, and Urumqi in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

The Tatars, historically named the "Dadan", are descended from a branch of a Mongolian tribe, who used to inhabit the region near the Volga River. From the beginning of the 20th century, the Tatars gradually settled in Xinjiang. Most of them were occupied as merchants.

The Tatar nationality has its own language, which belongs to Turkic branch of the Altaic language family. However, as a result of frequent contact with the Uygur and Kazak people, the Tatars also use Kazak or Uygur language. The Tatars' written language is based on Arabic letters, but now they often also use Kazak and Uygur characters.

Most of the Tatar people are adherents of Islam. Tatar cuisine includes scones, zhuafan, pastries, beef and mutton dishes, as well as various vegetables. Meats from pigs, donkeys, or mules are forbidden in their diet. Tatar drinks include the beer-like "keerxima", which is made from fermented honey, and 'Kesaile", a wine brewed from wild grapes.

Tatar men usually wear embroidered white shirts, under a black waistcoat or black robe, with a black or black and white embroidered hat. Young people like to wear peaked caps, and long leather shoes. Women wear white, yellow, or amaranth pleated one-piece skirts as well as small hats, with a short 'veil' covering the back of the head and neck.

Tatar people have strong sense of musical rhythm. Their music is full of grassland sentiment, and is accompanied by accordion, mandolin, and violin, etc. Tatars celebrate their "Saban Festival" (plowshare festival) each year after they finished their spring ploughing. Tatar people also celebrate Corban Festival, Almsgiving Festival and Kaizhai Festival in line with other Islamic believers. Their favorite sports include wrestling, horse racing, and tug of war.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

I read somewhere that Tatars in China have the highest level of literacy and education among all the peoples there, including the Chinese themselves. All the other ethnic minorities have a much lower level of education than the Chinese.