Ideologist Jadidism Ismail Gasprinskii.
End of XIX-beginning of the twentieth century is a period of unprecedented expansion of education and enlightenment among the Tatars magoemtan Volga and Ural. This is due, primarily, with the initiative, aspirations and desires of the nation and to a lesser extent with the social policies of the Government of . It's no secret that "among the peoples inhabiting the eastern part of , Tatars Mohammedans occupy the first place. The percentage of literacy among them is very high even in comparison with n. From whatever class or place Tartar, he certainly knows the beginning of faith, can read and write in Tartar ... The mullahs are engaged in educating children for the most pittance or even for free ... In it is difficult to specify the people, who would have been so widespread literacy, as in the Kazan Tatars. Illiterate Tartar can be found very rarely "(YD Koblov, 1908).
Who or what caused the unprecedented awareness and interest Tatars to education? On this question I will try to answer in the course work.
Shigabutdin Mardzhani - educator of the Tatar people.
Mardzhani - religious leader, educator, philosopher, historian. The above definition does not cover all aspects of his multifaceted activities. Mardzhani also an ethnographer, and archaeographer and orientalist, and teacher. His encyclopedic knowledge can be compared with encyclopedic eighteenth century French Enlightenment - Diderot and Rousseau.
What was the path to recognition Mardzhani, heights, which allowed Gabdulla Tukai describe it as "a champion of free thought, knowledge and progress that has made the first step to enlightenment? Shihab al-Din (Shihabuddin) b.. Baha al-Din b.. Subhan used. Abd al-Karim al-Marjani born January 16, 1818 (new style) in. Yabynchi current Atninskogo region of Tatarstan.
Ancestors Mardzhani from his father and mother belonged to the famous surname Imams mudarrisov. The first information on the history Shihabuddin received from his grandfather Subhan used. Abd al-Karim, who owned the Arabic and Persian.
Santa Mardzhani mother's side, Abd Al-Nasser, taught him Kor'anu, Sunnah, Fiqh (Islamic law). Father Mardzhani Baha Addin was educated in Bukhara, where he was one of the distinguished people who have their Majlis (Assembly) invited the Emir of Bukhara, Haidar B. Masoom. With his father he studied the Arabic language, logic, Kalam (theological science section).
At the age of five Mardzhani lost his mother, and then reared by her stepmother in a rather harsh environment. Primary education he received in the madrassas, where his father taught in the village Tashkichu. Junior Shihabuddin not limited to the study of subjects taught there and worked independently in the home library. From the age of seventeen he began teaching in the madrassas, and being dissatisfied textbook morphology of the Persian language, is his. Both his grandfather and father, being educated people, possessing a vast knowledge of Eastern history, philosophy, religion, managed to inculcate in the young Shihabuddinu commitment to teaching knowledge. Academic qualifications are not satisfied Mardzhani, constantly seek to acquire new knowledge. In 1838 he went to Bukhara for continuing education.
In Bukhara, the pent-up system of education in the madrasa, he basically alone, is engaged in rich precious manuscripts of local libraries. Money earns a living teaching the children of wealthy people. In 1843 Mardzhani sent to Samarkand - one of the ancient cultural centers of Central Asia. There he enrolled in madrassas "Shirdar, meets famous historian qadi Abu Said Al-Samarkand (um.1848-49 years.), Who writes Mardzhani, was the root cause of the fact that he" became interested in historical scholarship and began to study history books.
In Samarkand, already possessing some knowledge, Mardzhani feels the need deeper knowledge of the views of his predecessor and compatriot, Abu Nasr al-Kursavi (1776-1812).
In 1845 Mardzhani returned madrasa in Bukhara, Mir-Arab. It was there Mardzhani begin a serious study of culture, history and philosophy of the East. The first of his works he devoted the history of the Turkic peoples of Central Asia.
In 1848, after an eleven-year absence, with a new store of knowledge Mardzhani returned to his homeland and in March 1850 appointed Imam mudarrisom 1-st Kazan mosque.
In 1867-68 years the Spiritual Assembly of the Muslims of the Volga and Ural regions Mardzhani appointed to the post of Akhund and muhtasibs Kazan (one of the most respected religious posts in the region), which was no doubt a recognition of his work with the leadership of the Muslims. With the official secular authorities have also set Mardzhani positive contacts. It performs various errands Kazan provincial government: following the publication of the text Kor'ana in Kazan printing (later released a book on the history and principles of the publication Kor'ana in ), arrange for the collection of money for the Caucasian peoples affected by the earthquake, reports of birth , marriage, death of Muslims to government agencies involved in the trials in the utterance of oaths Muslims.
Over time, the name Mardzhani become known far beyond the borders of Kazan: in 1870 the publication of his book "Nazratul-Haqq," their new for its time and environment of religious reform ideas, which brought the author wide recognition, not only at home but also in the Muslim East. He became a prominent ideologue of the religious reformation, to continue and deepen in the new historical conditions, the traditions of their predecessors, and A. A. Kursavi Utyz-Imyani. Religious reformist Mardzhani included the concept of "opening the doors of ijtihad", as well as treatment to the times of Prophet Muhammad (Kor'anu, Sunnah, said mudzhtahidov) for "purification" of Islam from the accretions of later, the reform of teaching in the madrassas.
Educational work Mardzhani - another page of his education in the broadest sense of the word.
September 13, 1876 in Kazan, Tatar opened with an eight-school teacher training. The school prepares elementary school teachers from the Tatars. Instruction was in n, excluding lesson Shariah. Mardzhani the first of the Tatar Muslim clergy agreed to a proposal by the school inspector V. Radlov teach in her faith. At the opening of school, he made a welcoming speech in which he urged the Tatars to teaching in this school. During the nine years Mardzhani taught at the Tatar school teacher, entered the teachers' council. However, due to disagreements with the inspector and some teachers had to leave teaching. During this time the conservative circles of the Muslim clerics called Mardzhani missionary, a heretic, an apostate.
In his madrassa Mardzhani many classes has its own programme.V 80 years of the nineteenth century, radically expanded its own scientific activities Mardzhani, the fore classes philosophical and historical subjects. During this period Mardzhani working on a manuscript biographical dictionary "Vafiyatul aslyaf-va-tahiyyatul ahlyaf" (More about the precursors and their descendants greetings "), which includes 6057 biographies of scientists, writers, philosophers and political figures of the Muslim East.
K Vafiyatul-aslyaf "Mardzhani wrote the introduction -" Mukaddima ", which was also published. It describes the history of the origin scientist sciences in the East, gives their classification, supported by its references to the statements of eminent Muslim culture, examines the major religious schools, trends in Islam. In fact, it is not only historic, but also ideological work on various aspects and problems of the spiritual culture of the East.
During this period, published the most significant works Mardzhani, among them: "Hakkulov ma'rifa-va husnul-Idrak" ( "Truth is knowledge and comprehension of beauty"), 1880 - a treatise on Islamic law (fiqh), in which the scientist, particular, sets out its social and political views; "Mustafadul-akhbar fi ahvali Univ va Bulgar" ( "Your source of information about the affairs of Kazan and Bolgar), 1885, Volume 1 - a historical work on the Volga Bulgaria and Khanate of Kazan," Kitabul - Al-Hikma Al-Baliga dzhaniyya fi sharhil-akaid al-Hanafiyya "(" Book of mature philosophy, helps to explain the teachings Hanafite "), 1888 - an essay in which Mardzhani presents his religious views. Mental educational potential Mardzhani multiplied his journey 80 years in and countries of the Middle East. In search of material for historical research Mardzhani visited the ancient ruins of Bulgar, Tatar, n, Chuvash, Mordvin village. August 31, 1880 from Kazan, he goes to the pilgrimage, during which visiting Istanbul, Izmir, Alexandria, Cairo, Suez and other centers of Islamic culture.
In Istanbul, he met with the author of book "Chagatai and Ottoman languages" Kudratulloy al-Kanduzi and renowned scholar Ahmad Jawdat Pasha, takes copies with inscriptions dome mosque of Sultan Salim. In Cairo, a scientist visits Mahmoud al-bek-Fallaki, takes copies with inscriptions of the walls of the mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha.
Enlightening ideas Mardzhani cover a 70 - 80 years of the nineteenth century, a variety of renewal of public life of the Tatar people, including a thought about the need for the Tatar population of secular education, the assimilation of the progressive legacy of the past (antiquity, the Arab Thought) and present (the n and Western cultures) . Academic caring and education issues of national identity of the Tatar people, concerned about his welfare, socio-economic and political situation. Considering education of the most powerful instrument of progress, scientists are trying to rescue his people from "hibernation".
Mardzhani - harbinger Jadid movement in , and that he laid its foundation - the reform of teaching in the madrassas, the assimilation of the Tatar people of the advanced achievements of world culture and science. Mardzhani wrote more than 30 works, most of which were published mainly in Arabic. Only a few works written in the Tatar language in Arabic script. Not all the works written by scientists who have discovered. For example, "Risalyatun fi masailin-Nahvi" ( "Treatise on matters of grammar"), "Al-Al-tahrirat mufrada" ( "Edit Selected").
The ideological and philosophical views Mardzhani, his work as an educator, religious leader, historian, educator, philosopher, will remain a notable event in national history.
Ideologist Jadidism Ismail Gasprinskii.
Owner Jadidism Ismail Gasprinskii was born March 8, 1851 in Crimea, in the village adzhikoy near Gaspra, in the family of Ensign Mustafa Gasprinskiy. He studied at the rural Muslim school-Mekteb, then - in Voronezh, and the cadet corps in Moscow. In 15 years, he interrupted his military education and with a high school buddy on foot from Moscow on the Volga, Don, Azov Sea reached Bakhchisarai.
In his native city, he was appointed teacher of n language in the madrasas. In 1871 Gasprinskii went to Paris, where he lived for three years, serving in the office of the ad and working with the Secretary of Turgenev. Here he began to write correspondence for n newspapers. In 1874 he went to Constantinople, where a year studying the Turkish language.
Back home, Ismail Gaspirali becomes head Bakhchisarai. After leaving that post in 1883, Gasprinskii begin publishing and educational activities. It publishes a Muslim newspaper Terdzhiman "(" Translator ") in conditions of strict censorship, as the tsarist government in its rule based on national chauvinism. "Entire three years, I have petitioned the governors and ministers, and four years traveled to St. Petersburg to obtain permission for the publication of the newspaper - wrote a young writer.
The first person to approve the plan to publish the newspaper, was a theologian Shihabbadin Mardzhani. In the two years before the release of "Terdzhimana" I. Gasprinskii in Simferopol published a brochure "n Islam. Thoughts, notes and observations of a Muslim." He wrote that education reform should be carried out, based on the "new method". He said that the "old method" (Usul-i-Kadima) was to memorize the Koran and other religious texts, which was considered a chaplain sufficient to achieve a comprehensive knowledge.
"A new method" I. Gasprinsky based on the principle of phonetic reading in training, as well as the introduction of secular subjects in the madrasas: arithmetic, the n language, geography and history. Bitter opponents of its educational programs I. Gasprinskii met in the person who served the tsarist government ukaznyh mullahs, subordinates and Orenburg Tauride (Crimea), Mufti, as well as Orthodox missionaries, for instance, N. Elias (1822-1891 gg.), An ardent foe of education of peoples of .
I. Gasprinskii died in 1914, leaving hundreds of supporters, who continued his teaching not only in Empire, but also outside it, especially in Turkey, Persia and India. As a result of reforms to the educational and cultural levels of the Muslims of have increased considerably. A number of Muslim cities: Kazan, Bakhchisaray, Orenburg, Baku, Ufa, Troitsk - were worthy rivals of other intellectual and cultural centers - Istanbul, Cairo, Beirut.
Companions I. Gasprinsky were other talented people of the Tatar people.
Rizzauddin Fakhruddinov - in the early 90-ies of the last century was elected a member of the Orenburg Spiritual Assembly. Rizzauddin Fakhruddinov a perfect master of the Arabic language, ordered from Muslim countries, scientific journals and newspapers. On the formation of his ideology influenced compositions Shihhabbadina Mardzhani, teaching Ismail Gasprinskiy and a chance meeting in St. Petersburg with an outstanding Islamic thinker and political activist Dzhamaladdinom Afghani.
?In May 1906 he left that post and moved to Orenburg on the invitation of renowned Goldminers Rameevyh. Fakhruddinov becomes a member of the newspaper vakt ", edited by his nephew Fatykhov Karimov. Together they raise the newspaper on a high level and make under "vakt" magazine "Shura", the editor of which he was until 1915.
Great value of the writer on the life and work of prominent Muslim thinkers in . Major works in this area:
1. Multi-volume work "Asar" - consists of biographies of n Muslim leaders. There are currently published in two volumes, in which the author gives not only biographical information but also supported by notes containing theological critique.
2. "Remarkable People" - biographies of the founders of classical Muslim scholarship. Issued by the six parts of this work: "Ibn Rushd", "Magarri", "Ibn Arabi", "Outstanding Women in Islam". In addition, placed in every room of the journal published by the "Shura" - "Imam Ghazali," and "Ahmed Midhat.
3. "Remarkable Women" - a collection of biographical essays of "Shura" in the "remarkable people and great events."
Main work Rizauddina Fakhruddinov in theology - Religious and social issues. In it the author outlines the main provisions of the Muslim religion and covers hot topics of modern Muslim life.
Another great scientist is writing "Commentary on the sayings of Muhammad (peace be upon him and welcomed), and has not yet issued an essay" Saints and miracles. "
Another educator, Musa Bigiev - was born in 1875 in Rostov-on-Don in the family of the mullahs. He studied at Kazan, Bukhara, Mecca and Medina, where for several years, he attended lectures by the most famous theologians. He has been in the leading centers of Islamic education in Egypt, Turkey and other Muslim states.
In 1905, Musa Bigiev arrives in Petrograd, where moving closer to the editor of newspapers Ulfet and Tilmiz Rasheed Ibragimov. In these publications, he puts his religious reform article. With 1907 starting out his work on Islamic theology.
At the moment of the works Bigieva in the light went out the following: "The history of the Koran," onthe author wrote in Arabic; comment on the composition of the famous Arab poet Abu al-Magarri "Elluzumiyat" "Proof of God's mercy," "Arabic literature and Islamic sciences," "The theory of Islamic law," "Fundamentals Iariata; translation of the famous Persian poet Hafiz Diwaniyah and others.
Galimzyan Baroody - mudarris, founder of the madrassa "Muhammadiye, which has long served as the center novometodnogo education. Born in 1857 in the Powder suburb of Kazan. My father gave it to one of the Kazan madrassas, and after its completion sent to study in Bukhara. Galimzyan returned to his homeland in 1881 and was selected second mullah in the 4 th arrival of Kazan.
In 1901, he built a madrasa "Muhammadiye" and introduced into the educational system of the new method. While his name has gained great popularity, for him to study gathered the Muslims from all over , the Caucasus, Turkestan, Siberia and the Kyrgyz steppes.
He made friends with authoritative and influential sheik Zaynulloy Rassulevym Sharifi, and receiving his permission, he began to take on training murids. A lot of this has caused outrage, but in the illegal Youth Authority "Taraki" in his address appeared sarcastic poem "Oh, Sheikh Galimdzhan." Many mudarrisy and public figures opposed Galimzyan Baroody. However, despite this, Baroody has made every effort to ensure that prevailed in his madrassa spirit of Islam, the truth of which has been confirmed not decrepit scholasticism, and the science of our time, studied to become enlightened Muslims. For students in madrassas Baroody was a lot of textbooks on the new method
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