A decree of 1844 established model mosque designs inspired by contemporary church architecture. However, this attempt to manage and contain the symbolic expression of Islam and impose a uniform imperial aesthetic on mosque construction proved impractical. In 1862, the government abandoned the obligatory model plans shown here but still required that drawings for mosque plans be approved in advance by Russian provincial officials. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiiskoi imperii, vol. 19 (St. Petersburg, 1845).
Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
A Tatar Senior Muslim Cleric 1812