When the main forces of the Russian army were bound at the litauischen border, 1521 the Krimtataren and the Kasaner act arene to Moscow penetrated and pillaged the occupied areas.
After the peace treaty with Lithuanias moved Muscovite the Principality of the emphasis on the fight against the Chanat Kazan', which constantly threatened Moscow of the east and which Volga trade route controlled. As Smolensk, which was the entrance to the west, opened Kazan' the way eastward. The war against the Chanat Kazan' was a fight against the remnants of the golden horde/hurdle. Kazan' laid quite often claim on the resumption of the tribute payments.
Under Iwan IV. undertook the Muscovites princes of three campaigns against Kazan'. They put 1523 at the Volga, 200 kilometers far away from Kazan', the foundation-stone for the fortress Wassilsursk. It transformed in the fight against Kazan' for the base of the Russian army.
1547 proceeded the Russian army over Vladimir and Nishni Nowgorod, the Kljasma, Oka and Volga along. The collapse of the supply of the army forced the troop guidance however to do without the campaign and begin the retreat.
Two years later the next campaign was organized. In February 1550 the Russian army included Kazan' and fired at it with artillery. The assault on this strong fortress was however badly preparatory and failed. Since the roads became in the spring impassable, Iwan IV. gave the FE storage up. 25 kilometers south of Kazan' built the Russians the fortress Swijashsk. It was established within a short time (within four weeks) and was for the Russians of greatest importance. Furthermore the fortress secured for Moscow first of all from Tschuwa, Mordwinen and Tscheremissen inhabited whole left Volga banks and their building pursued the goal of restricting „the fight of the country for Kazan' ". Secondly Swijashsk served as base for a further campaign independent of the season to Kazan'. Thus in the history of the war art a FE storage basis was created for the first time. (Only in the second half 17. Century such a base was theoretically justified by the French master of building of wars Vauban.) Thirdly Swijashsk and also Wassilsursk secured during the fighting before Kazan' the connection Muscovites of the army with the hinterland and shortened the operation line.
In the spring 1552 a third campaign began against Kazan', which considered the past experiences and with subjecting the Chanats ended.
The first period of the campaign - the preparation and strategic protection.
The war council advised in detail over the campaign plan. It decided to carry on the Oka and the Volga the foot people with the heavy artillery and the Lebensmittelvorräten. In order to secure the troops transported on ships, in Swijashsk three Polks were concentrated. The connectors of the Volga with Wassilsursk were occupied by the Russians.
The characteristic of the strategic situation consisted of that the Russian army could be attacked during its war course against Kazan' by the Krimtataren at the flank and in the back. The campaign plan considered this circumstance. The Vorhut and Nachhut went toward Murom forwards (280 kilometers of Moscow and 450 kilometers of Kazan'), while the remaining forces in Kaschira (110 kilometers of Moscow) and Kolomna (110 kilometers of Moscow and 650 kilometers of Kazan') were pulled together. To the Oka and at the Kljasma groups of forces deployed the attacks of the Krimtataren should repel. By this marching-up the Russian army became effective after two sides. It could turn into from the strategic protection and the strategic cooperation of the troops for tactical protection and for tactical cooperation.
Over the numerical strength of the army there are no accurate data. Adam it reports that approximately 150,000 men was available. This number is already unreal, because thereby to each kilometer of the containment ring 30000 put around the city would have been allotted to men.
Kurbskis “history Muscovites of the large prince” contains the following number data: Of the prince Kurbski with Kazan' led right wings consisted 45,000 men of 18,000 men Reiterei and foot people, the Vorhut of 7000 riders and the Zarenpolk of 20,000 men ‑ altogether thus. Further data are missing. Kurbski reports that the Russian army was divided during the FE storage from Kazan' into two halves. One of these halves consisted 45,000 of 30,000 riders and 15,000 men foot people - altogether men. The strength of both halves must have amounted to therefore 90,000 warriors. The Zarenpolk was however indicated around half smaller than above. The sources call a strength of altogether 15,000 men for the advance guard and the right wing. Thus the right wing before Kazan' could have been strong alone hardly 18,000 men. 50000 men can have confessed at the most before the city, so that on each kilometer of the containment ring 10,000 men came on the average. In this connection it is still noticed that the total number of the warriors consisted in the year 1630 of 92,500 men. Center 16. Century must have been far less it.
The foot people led 150 cannons of heavy caliber „apart from many field guns " and large quantities to powders for the artillery and the mini compilation with itself. Buyers accompanied the warriors with numerous goods intended for the fighters.
On 16 June 1552 the Russian army left Moscow. On the way after Kolomna the message ran in that the Krimtataren would have turned against Rjasan and Kolomna. Whereupon the advance was broken off against Kazan'. The main forces referred Kaschira position at the front line Kolomna ‑: the right wing with Kaschira; the majority with Kolytschew; the advance guard with Rostislawl; the left wing with Golutwin and the Zarenpolk with Kolomna. The Vorhut and the Nachhut remained with Murom, covered the left flank of the army and threatened the right flank of the attacking Krimtataren. The clearing-up service received the task to inform about the opponent.
On 22 June the scouts reported that before Tula a weak department of Krimtataren had emerged. On 23 June came the message of the Tulaer governor Temkin, who city besieged by strong forces of the Chans with „many cannons and Janitscharen of the Sultans ". The Turkish Sultan had strengthened the army of the Krimchans by its foot people, in order to prevent the campaign of the Russians against Kazan' by an idea directed against Moscow.
The right wing and the advance guard hurried immediately after Tula; the majority followed them.
On 24 June a further report Temkins ran into Kaschira that the crew and the inhabitants would have reduced the attack of the enemy of Tula and would have begun act arene, in view of strong Russian forces toward the city, the retreat.
The advance guard and the right wing pursued the back-yielding opponent, caught up it at the river Schiworna, „and it annihilated so many that their only few remained, so that hardly customer arrived of it at the horde/hurdle ".
Thus the attempt of the Krimtataren to defeat the campaign of the Russian army to Kazan' rejected. The strategic protection of the campaign took place in the form of the attack. The well organized clearing-up service supplied in time information about the opponent.
The second period of the campaign - the advance of the Russian army against Kazan'.
On 1 July the entire Russian army was concentrated in Kolomna. There a war council consisting of Bojaren and Woiwoden was held and the campaign plan was specified more exactly.
The war council decided to proceed in two march directions against Kazan'. The one led across Rjasan and Mestschera and the other one across Vladimir and Murom. The column penetrating over Rjasan should secure the movements of the troops advancing over Vladimir and the foot people on the ships before a any assault of the Nogaier act arene.
The Rjasaner column consisted of the majority, the advance guard and the right wing, the 'Wadimirer from the Vorhut, the Nachhut, the Zarenpolk and the left wing. Both columns should unite in the area of the Alatyr to the Sura and proceed from there further against Swijashsk. On 3 July the Rjasaner troops applied and arrived to 13. in Murom. There a review was held. On 15 July the Vorhut sat down against Alatyr in motion, followed from serve-requiring workers, who repaired the roads and struck bridges. On 20 July the Wladimirer left column Murom, while the other one already passed Rjasan.
In the evening 4 of August both columns united with at the Sura settlement Borontschejewo Gorodist lain. On 5 August the Russian army combined to a column continued its march in the following order: Vorhut, advance guard, Zarenpolk, majority and Nachhut. The right and the left wing proceeded on parallel roads at the flanks of the majority in a line with the Zarenpolk.
In the morning 13 of August the Russian army Swijashsk approached. There already were the artillery, the FE storage devices and the Lebensmittelvorräte. A quantity consisting of Tscheremissen, Tschuwa, Mordwinen and act arene had appeared itself, the sources calls 20000 men, a number, which is certainly exaggerated.
When the Rjasaner troops at that removed approximately 700 kilometers for Sura concerned, they had put 24 day marches, i.e. on the average 30 kilometers back per day. The army passed the way of the Sura up to the fortress Swijashsk in 8 days, plus a rest daily; the day marches extended on the average over 28 to 30 kilometers. If one considers bad road conditions, the large mass of the marching troops and the ponderous unit train, then the cruising speed can be called rather high and as result of a good march organization.
The third period of the campaign - the containment of Kazan', the FE storage, its tactical protection and the storming of the fortress.
Into Swijashsk the Russian army inserted a rest by 17 August and began then to cross the Volga; that took two days. The roads were aufgeweicht by the pouring rain, all bridges and club dams destroyed, so that the march of the advance guards from the connector to the river Kasanka (20 kilometers) dragged on 3 days long (of 17. by 19 August). The remaining troops put this distance back on the repaired road on one day, reached Kazan' and referred on the Volga bank position.
Iwan IV. sent to the Chan of Kazan', Edigei, a message, into it requested to capitulate. But Edigei relied on the firmness of the defenses, its strong troops and on the support of the population of Kazan'.
The city became in the northeast and southwest by with difficulty passable small rivers protecting the swampy Kasanka and the verschlammten Bulak. The city extended to a periphery of 5 kilometers. Kazan' was a strong fortress. 15 meters deep ditch surrounded the city a 6.5 meter more broadly by all sides a wooden wall armoured with 15 towers and. On the controlling height within the fortress was a base with a high earthfilled and with 8 towers provided eichenen wall. The fortress was most easily from the east and accessible from the southeast. east the Arsker of field the Arsker forest lay. There those had established removed from the fortress, an attachment, from which they could fall troops in the backs, attacking Kazan', to act arene, 15 kilometers,
On 21 August a tatarischer defector reported on the numerical strength, the condition of the crew and the defense plan of the fortress. In the city was 30,000 men Kasaner troops and 3000 Nogaier. In the Arsker attachment 20,000 to 30,000 men had entrenched itself strong Reiterei under the guidance of the prince Japantscha. (All numbers stated in the sources are at least high around the double too.) The defense plan of Kazan' saw active fighting of the fortress crew (losses) ago before and attacks in the backs of the Belagerer of the Arsker forest.
On 21 August the Russian troops struck wood for the building of Palisaden and created branches for twisting digging baskets near. Meanwhile the Woiwoden on a war council met and prepared a plan, after which Kazan' should be included.
On 22 August the army on six bridges exceeded the Kasanka, took position at the Flußmündung and advanced on the next morning further against Kazan'. There to fight one army-look held, on that lwan IV. personally its warriors contacted and it admonished, courageously.
The first stage of the FE storage ‑ the containment of Kazan'.
After army-look continued to penetrate the Russian army on Kazan'. When men strong Vorhut had overcome the 7000 on 22 August the Bulak, had approached the mountain erklommen and the fortress wall, it was attacked by a strong act arene department, which undertook a loss, surprisingly. (The sources report that the numerical strength amounted to act arene of 5000 riders and 10,000 men foot people.) The Vorhut was split into two parts. You hurried however the Strelitzen to assistance and reduced the attack act arene. Whereupon the Vorhut turned into to the counter attack and drove the enemy up to the town-gates back. At the same time the fortress cannons opened the fire; it remained however without effect.
In the evening 23 of August the Russian troops included the city and „intercepted from all sides and entrances to the city; nobody of them could come the city abandoned still into the city ".
The advance guard and the majority referred its camp on the Arsker field. The right wing with the Kosaken set up itself on the northern bank of the Kasanka, the Nachhut to the Bulakmündung, the left wing further above the Bulak, the quantity Schig Aleis at the cemetery, south to the fortress, formed from the local population, and the Zarenpolk south the left wing on the Zarenwiese; it belonged to the general reserve. All Polks received the instruction to make a digging basket available for ever ten men. In addition each warrior had to procure a plank for the building of the rear attachment.
In the evening 24 of August a violent storm arose and sank many boats loaded with supplies. With a part of the army doubts about the success of the campaign moved. Iwan IV. decided however to begin the FE storage work. Swijashsk and Moscow had to supply new supplies, so that will maintain the FE storage could.
On 25 August the guidance instructed to occupy the section between the right wing and the advance guard. During this maneuver those undertook act arene a surprising loss. With the help of the advance guard the opponent was thrown back however with large losses for him into the city.
The second stage of the FE storage ‑ the execution of the FE storage work.
A careful investigation of the attachments of the opponent and their entrances preceded the beginning of the FE storage work. Woiwoden with small groups were day and night on the way.
It was decided to divert primarily the Kasanka from the city in order to withdraw from the crew and the inhabitants the drinking water. Whereupon the Kasaner had to get the water from a source which was because of the river course.
At the night to 26 August the troops established 200 meters of the fortress wall a Zirkumvallationslinie. The second line, consisting of digging baskets, lay only 100 meters far away from the Stadtmauer. On 26 August the fortress crew undertook a loss, in order to disturb the FE storage work. The whole night over embittered one fought; on the next morning the opponent was back-pushed into the city. On the same day the commanders of the artillery let the cannons position by groups. In order to secure the artillery, „they instructed the Strelitzen and Kosaken, against the city before the digging baskets in ditches to entrench itself ".
In swampy places, where it was impossible to set up digging baskets the Russians' established Palisaden. Opposite the Zarewer, Arsker and Atalykower gate of Kazan' was built an attachment. From here the Russians covered the FE storage work by arrow shots and Arkebusenfeuer.
On 29 August the whole city was surrounded by attachment plants Muscovites of the army. It began one day after to destroy the Stadtmauern with wall crushers and mortars. 150 cannons fired at the fortress and the city.
On the Arsker field was set up a 13 meter high wood tower. The instruction was issued to equip and with Strelitzen occupy it with 10 large cannons as well as 50 hook cans. The Russians in the section between the Zarewer and Arsker gate rolled this tower to the fortress wall near. Whereupon the tower crew opened the fire on the fortress wall and the roads of the city. The fire impaired strongly maneuverability besieged troops.
On 31 August Russian war engineers tackled the mini compilation and let four mine lugs drive in, in order to blow up different objects. One this lug was put on by the Mineuren under the secret course, which the Kasaner used, in order to get water. The breakup of this lug destroyed the secret course. Now the population had to scoop the water from puddles and wells. That was one of the causes for the spreading epidemics and for the decomposition beginning of the combat morale of the opponent.
Furthermore the Mineure dug two lugs in the section of the Arsker of gate and further with the Nogaier gate. The mini compilation ran under the total line of capable Russian war engineer and Djaken Wyrodkow.
The crew of Kazan' tried to obstruct the FE storage work and undertook daily losses. On 26 September the digging baskets to close were put forward to the edge of the fortress ditch. On the same day (after the sources 10000 men) strong a hostile department undertook a loss and conquered several digging baskets. It was thrown back however with large losses into the city.
The third stage of the FE storage - work which tactical protection of the FE storage.
The attacks of the department of Japantschas of the Arsker forest and the assaults of the Tscheremissen from the Volga valley made the FE storage work more difficult. The Russian army was threatened constantly in the back and was suspended thereby a strong physical and moral load.
Edigei had organized the losses from the city and the simultaneous attacks of the department of Japantschas well. As communication signal one served „large flag the disbelieving one ", which besieged of on the high city tower were go-eaten. On this signal the attacks of the fortress and from the forest took place at the same time.
On 28 August the act arene department Japantschas repeated surprisingly its attack on the Russian troops, however by parts of the majority into the forest was thrown back. These fights showed, how necessary a reliable tactical protection of the FE storage work was.
In order to discuss the tactical situation, a new war council was called up. It decided to divide the entire army. One half should besiege the fortress, the other one, under the guidance of the princes Gorbaty ‑ Schuiski and Serebrjany, had the Belagerer at the field side to secure and against Japantscha proceed at the same time. But 50 per cent of all troops (according to the instructions Kurbskis of 30,000 riders and 15,000 men foot people) was intended.
On 30 August the Russians began the fighting against the troops Japantschas. The princes sent small groups in the Arsker forest, in order to draw act arene out, and put their main forces into the ambush. When these encountered soon thereafter act arene, they withdrew themselves. From the ambush the main forces defeated act arene. The Russians pursued the remnants of the enemy 15 kilometers far.
Soon the Tscheremissen the right wing fell into the back. The attacks were however struck back. The Russians of 25 kilometers before Kazan' caught up and destroyed the fleeing opponent there the enemy.
After the troops Japantschas had again collected their forces, they resulted the Russians again from the Arsker forest. In order to finally secure the hinterland of the Russian troops, the guidance decided to destroy the tatarischen attachments in the Arsker forest. This task was transferred to a department under the prince Gorbaty ‑ Schuiski.
In the Arsker forest was more surrounded by sumps and with difficulty passable Dickicht a well fastened Ostrog, in which the troops Japantschas kept themselves hidden.
On 6 September the Russian Reiterei and the foot people penetrated into the forest and proceeded against the Arsker Ostrog. When they approached the attachment, the Reiterei served, and the entire department divided, in order to attack the Ostrog from both sides.
On 8 September the Russians conquered the Arsker camp after tough fight, destroyed the attachments and cleaned the entire periphery of Kazan' of the opponent. On 16 September they returned with large Lebensmittelvorräten to their main forces.
This enterprise was very significant. The being made by the troops Japantschas lifted the moral in the Russian army. The threat in the back of the Russian army was eliminated.
At the end of September approached the FE storage work its end. The troops prepared for the storm.
The fourth stage of the FE storage - the storm on the fortress.
The storm was determined at 2 October. The troops made wood and earth available, over the eve of the storming. the ditches fill up and bridges to strike to be able. The Russians prepared the mines filled with powder for breakup.
They demanded those act arene on to capitulate again. But act arene prepared for the defense. Hasty they established bar walls at the break-throughs of the fortress wall and covered them with earth.
On 30 September the Russian Mineure blew up the lug pushed forward under the Vorwerke opposite the Arsker gate. The Russians used and pushed the confusion with the opponent, resulting from it, the digging baskets closely to the fortress gate near.
In the meantime the Strelitzen and Kosaken had filled the ditches with brushwood and earth and ignored to the storm. The Russians struck back all hostile counter attacks, conquered the Arsker tower and penetrated into the city. The Woiwode Worotynski asked the tsar to let the troops proceed to the general storm. Iwan IV. however knew that the remaining troops were not yet sufficient preparatory, and instructed, to withdraw the troops from the city. The Arsker tower remained in the hands of the Strelitzen.
The carefully prepared plan for the storming planned to distribute the troops and cover their backs. The main thrust should be led against the eastern and southwest side of the fortress, where breaches were put already into the wall. The storm columns at other parts of the fortress wall should bind as strong a forces of the opponent as possible. There were altogether six storm columns.
Each Polk had to storm a certain gate. The cooperation of the individual Polks was organized.
Each Polk unfolded in three lines. In first the Kosaken and the service people of the Bojaren arranged into groups of one hundred proceeded; in second the storm column, which formed the main forces of the department, and in third the forces intended for the support of the Polks - the special reserves.
Certain measures secured the army against attacks in the back. A part of the majority and the department of Schig ‑ the Arsker road and the Tschuwaschenstraße, part of the Zarenvolks the Nogaier road and another occupied Aleis those Halit road. A further department engaged in Staroje Gorodist.
The troops should keep themselves on 2 October at three o'clock, two hours before sunrise, to the storm ready. The explosion of the mine lugs should release the storm.
The first phase of the storm ‑ the beginning of the storm and the hostile counter attacks.
After incipient crack of the midnight Iwan IV. received the message that the lugs finished in the section of the Arsker and Nogaier of gate were filled with powder. The troops received the instruction to finish to the storm.
During sunrise the lug in the section of the Arsker of gate detonated and destroyed a part of the fortress wall; the lug at the Nogaier gate followed it. The artillery fired from all pipes.
Under the protection of the fire of the Strelitzen and that sheet contactors walked the Russians to the storm. The opponent offered violent resistance, answered the fire from its cannons and Arkebusen, the überschüttete storming with hot pitch and let heavy planks to her fall down.
Nevertheless the Russians could act arene of the walls strike back, and of the Arsker field into the city break in. It came to the street fight. When the storming troops penetrated more deeply into the city, those collected act arene their forces, turned into to the general counter attack and pushed the Russians gradually back. The crisis of the assault matured near.
The second phase of the storm - the attack of the general reserve.
During the successful hostile counter attack the prince Worotynski Iwan IV. asked for support. Half of the Zarenpolks served and advanced against the city. The fresh forces reduced the hostile counter attack and tore the yielding Russian warriors with itself. The enemy withdrew itself to the palace of the Chans. Violently it resisted still some time and had to then vacate the palace.
The third phase of the storm - the pursuit and destruction of the remnants of the opponent.
About 6000 act arene had withdrawn themselves into the lower city and let themselves at the fortress walls to the bank of the Kasanka down there. There it received an artillery salvo. Their arms put and overcame act arene down the Kasanka. 200 to 300 men strong a rider department of the right wing tried to move the enemy the way however one threw back. Act arene fell to the forest. But they were surprised there by the troops, which were used for the protection of the storm. Act arene were struck.
Thus Kazan' was conquered.
On 11 October the Russian army applied again into the homeland. In order to secure the east border of the Russian state, the Russians in Kazan' let a strong crew back with the instruction to rebuild all destroyed attachment plants.
In Nishni Nowgorod the Dworjanen and all war-service-requiring became home to dismiss, while the Strelitzen with the artillery returned to Moscow.
The conquest of the Chanats Kazan' was for the Rus of great economic and political importance. This success eliminated first of all the stove of the constant ideas Kazan' act arene. Secondly now the Volga road for the trade of the Rus with Azerbaijan, Persia, India, Siberia and Central Asia became passably. Thirdly subjecting Kazan' vacated one of the obstacles from the way, which opposed the successful fight for the education of a centralized Russian state. Fourth the victory created favorable conditions for the fight for the reunification of the Russian countries at the west border and for the entrance to the sea over the Chanat. The hinterland was now reliably secured. The conquest of Kazan', the incorporation Astrachans 1556 and subjecting the Nogaier horde/hurdle were later the basis, which brought the Russian multinational state out. By the integration of Kazan' and Astrachans into the Russian state the fight for the Baltic countries became strategically secured.
In the campaign against Kazan' the progress showed up in the quantitative and qualitative development of the Russian army. Economic and political strengthening of the Russian centralized state led to a further centralization of the army. Its individual different components corresponded to the leftovers of feudalen splintering in the Rus. They made the organization in the troop guidance and the cooperation more difficult of the individual branches of service.
The method of the recruitment increased the quality and quantity of the Russian army. With Kazan' it proved and high combat characteristics to discipline. Crucial Kraft, which the exit of the fight determined, were not the Dworjanen, but the Strelitzen, the service people of the Bojaren (Cholopen) and the Kosaken.
In this connection some interesting strategic moments are important. First of all the Russian army became on the war with Kazan' in conformity with the material strategic situation, due to which prepares experiences of the preceeding fights and the knowledge of the opponent. Secondly the strategic protection carried the character of active fighting, because it eliminated the obstacles, which opposed the combat goal. A passive protection would have only splintered the forces. Thirdly organized the guidance an advance in three directions, including the route of march of the foot people on the ships. A column secured the movement of the remaining troops. Finally it is to be still emphasized that the Russian troop guidance sought to achieve toughly and consistently the put strategic goals.
The accomplished organizational measures had the goal to secure the campaign materially and morally. The foot people on the ships carried food except artillery and FE storage devices also. That was already the beginning of a central supply of the troops. Regular military consultation examined the character of the fighting in each stage of the campaign and specified the distribution of the means and forces. The march, the containment of the fortress, which was FE storage work and the storm well organized.
Furthermore the tactical measures carried for an active character for the protection of the FE storage. The Russian troop guidance was limited not only to the passive tactical protection, but eliminated by active fighting the obstacle, which obstructed the successful execution of the FE storage work and the storm. The FE storage work unfolded gradual and constantly approached the object which can be stormed. The method of the parallels, i.e. the approach of the FE storage means to the attack objects developed by ditch work and an appropriate shifting of the firing position of the artillery. This method justified Vauban only in the second half 17. Century.
In connection with the FE storage work and the distribution of troops on the attack objects elements of the planning of the storm showed up. The Strelitzen and the storm columns cooperated; the special reserves and the general reserve made it possible to create a tactical depth and direct the storm. The punctual employment of the general reserve broke the hostile resistance. The Russian Reiterei proved that she could fight served.
The artillery played a ever larger role. During the FE storage and storming of Kazan' the artillery destroyed the defenses, prepared the attack of the storm columns and rejected the attempts of the opponent to break through the line of the defenses. The cannons were by groups arranged - the condition for later arising of the batteries.
After the sources Strelitzen at the battle took part, a proof for it that the meaning of the hand-held weapons increased.
With Kazan' the art of the Minierens developed. There the underground secret course for the water supply were destroyed and breaches into the fortress wall were struck. The relieved income of the fortress.